Behavioral Science

Background Information (Reference Works)

Quite often when doing research you will come across concepts, theories, names, and terms that are new and unfamiliar. Reference works are good sources for becoming familiar with the unfamiliar. In addition to our many print volumes, the Library has a varied collection of reference works online. You will find a link to these on the library website.

Dictionaries

Some professions using very specific terminology will have dictionaries of their own such as Black's Medical Dictionary and Black's Law Dictionary. Some academic disciplines have dictionaries as well, for example, A Dictionary of Sociology.

Encyclopedias

In addition to the more familiar general encyclopedias, like the Encyclopedia Americana, the library has many subject specific encyclopedias. These usually contain much longer and more in-depth essays. Some examples of these at the library include:

Wikipedia

For all its faults and limitations Wikipedia can be a good source of background information. Some articles may be quite long, provide a useful bibliography, and include extensive citations. The entry on Max Weber is a good example. Wikipedia excels at covering pop culture. You will find long multi-page entries for pop culture franchise like Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Naruto, as well as entries for one-hit wonders like the singing group The Contours and obscure no-hit bands like Ednaswap.

Literature Review Resources

One of the first step when preparing a research project is the review of existing literature. There are two good sources for these in handbooks and literature review articles. In addition to reviewing the current state of research on a topic these essays will also include extensive lists of references and often highlight questions needing more research.

Handbooks

Handbooks are collections of review essays on a topic. For example, The Oxford Handbook of Human Motivation contains over thirty review essays on specific topics, like ego depletion and curiosity, within the broader topic of motivation. You can search for these in the Library catalog by simply adding 'and handbook' to your search. For example, to search for handbooks on ADHD, enter the search terms ADHD and handbook. (Note: you may find it helpful to limit your results to books.)

Review Articles

Academic journals will often publish literature review articles. You can search for these in the library catalog by adding 'and review' to your search and limiting your results to academic journal articles. A search for ADHD and review returns over 6,000 articles with titles like Psychodynamic Psychotherapy of ADHD: A Review of the Literature. (Note: searching this way will also return book reviews.)

Specific Databases

The OneSearch tool on the library homepage searches most of the library's databases. It is the right tool for most searches. There are times when you will want to search only in a specific database because they have additional search features or they are not included in OneSearch.You can find a list of the libraries databases on the library website under the Articles or Research Guides tabs. Here are a couple of examples:

  • PsycINFO is a psychology specific database that includes additional search features that allow you to search for specific population groups (female, outpatient, over 65 years of age).
  • Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) is a repository of research data sets such as the Americans' Use of Time Series. It contains no articles at all, just the raw data.

Using Citations to Find Items

When doing research you will find references to books and articles that you will want to read. There are several methods you can use to locate these items. If you don't find the item with your first search, try using a different method. Sometimes there are errors in the citation or quirks in the search engines that hide the item. If you don't find the item ask a librarian for help or request the item through interlibrary loan (ILL).
  • OneSearch
    • To see if the Library has the item you can search for the articles title. You may also try searching for the articles author.
  • Journals by Title
    • You can also see if the Library has access to the journal by searching for the journal title using the Journals by Title link on the Library website.
  • Google
    • If you don't find the item at the library try searching for it using Google. Sometimes journals post articles on the web and allow you to download them for free.
  • Google Scholar
    • An extra, nifty feature from Google is their Scholar search. When you find an important article, search for it in Google Scholar. After the entry for the item you will see a link 'cited by' followed by a number. That is the number of items that have cited the article. This is a helpful clue to the importance of the article. Following that link will list all of those items. This is a great tool for tracing the path of research forward.

Public Information

In addition to scholarly sources, you will often find yourself needing data for your research. A great number of public and private agencies now make their data publicly available on the internet.

Government

The US Federal government is the champion data collector. Every federal agency collects data and most of it is placed on the web. A few examples of good sources of data include; the Census Bureau, the Centers for Disease Control, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, and the National Institute of Mental Health.

Utah

Like the federal government, the state governments collect and publish data. The State of Utah has collected all of its data sources in a single webpage, www.utah.gov/data/.

Research Centers

Some research centers also publish their findings on the web. Generally these centers have a public policy interest. A couple of examples are the Pew Research Center which tracks demographic and public opinion trends, and the Guttmacher Institute which promotes reproductive health.

Other Sources

Finally, there are other sources of data that don't fit into these neat categories.these sources can be found with a modest amount of effort with your favorite web search tool. A new trend in research is visualizing data. A couple of fun examples of this are Gapminder and Google Ngrams.