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PUBLISHED PAPERS

All conference presentations will run a total of 30 minutes: 20 minute for the presentation and 5 minutes for a Q/A. The presentations can be given in English, Spanish, or French and answer the question: “Why it Matters”.

Click on the one of the above Sustainable Development Goals to be taken to the coresponding presentations

No Poverty Zero Hunger Good Health Quality Education Gender Equality Clean Water Affordable and Clean Energy Decent Growth Industry, Innovation
                 
Reduced Inequalities Sustainable Cities Responible Consumption Climate Action Life below Water Life on Land Peace Justice and Strong Institutions Partnership for Goals  

SDG 1: No poverty

Presenters     Title and Absract

Awath Java Abdat
Babirye Esther
Emmanuel Kato
Kuteesa Jesse Kirule
Owen Ssembuya

Uganda

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

 

The Mukono Micro-Livestock Farming Project Designed to Tackle Sustainable Development Goal No. 1, No Poverty
41% OF Uganda’s population live in poverty according the Uganda Bureau Of Statistics(UBOS). Almost half of Uganda’s population is under the age of 15, representing one of the youngest populations in the world. A young population indicates high potential but as the situation stands, poverty is high amongst the households that 45% of children drop out of school at primary level but the rate is speculated to be higher for girls. Not to digress, this problem amongst many others is the reason why poverty has been persistent in the Ugandan society. Our Team choose to tackle the SDG Number 1, No poverty to see to it that such problems are done away with. The aim is to create a society that is financially independent and financially secure hence sustainable in the long run. The Team chose to work with a project that is easily executable and understood by everyone and that was micro-livestock farming, with cuniculture being the pioneer of this project we called the Mukono Micro-Livestock Project. The cost of setting up the project is not very costly and the maintenance of the whole project depends on how its ran. Given our major aims, to conclude this project we decided that SACCOs are the way to go, with everything else being just a means to an end. This submission shows how effective the project can be and with funding, it will surely change the lives of people in the target area.

Keywords: Kigezi Health Care Foundation (KIHEFO), Mukono Micro-Livestock Project (MUMILI), Saving Credit and Cooperative Organization (SACCO), Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS), United Nations Development Program (UNDP)

 

Helen Linonge-Fontebo
University of Buea
Cameroon

 

Published in Conference Proceedings

PRERECORDED

    The Socio-Economic Effects of Child Marriage on the Wellbeing of the Girl-Child: An Analysis of the Implementation of Agenda 2030 in Cameroon

Socio-cultural and customary laws in Cameroon perpetuate child marriage, given that the civil and common law operate alongside a strong under-current of customary laws  which sometimes act as a parallel regime to statutory law, thereby compromising the development (SDG 1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 16) of girls, resulting in early pregnancy, social isolation, little or no education, poor vocational training/skills, loss of self-esteem and reinforces the gendered nature of poverty. Indicating that boys are also affected by child marriage but the impact is severe on girls, compounded by the fact that Cameroon has not adhered to Article 6 (b) of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights on Women, which states a minimum age of marriage at 18 for both boys and girls. Religion is often used to justify child marriage in Cameroon and elsewhere. This explains why it is predominant among the Muslims in the Northern part of Cameroon, where young girls are still sent into marriages with traditional rulers, lamibes, who may have ten or fifteen wives. This practise is also common among the Bacheve, Oliti and Assumbo clans in Akwaya where girls at five, unknowingly are faced with the reality of child marriage at about the age of ten when their supposed suitors come for them.

This paper examines the socio-economic implications of child marriage on the well-being of the girl Childs’ education, health and development through documentary and desktop review of literature and concludes by proposing recommendations for ways in which the practice of child marriage can be addressed through the Ministries of Women’s Empowerment and the Family, Social Affairs, NGOs/CSOs and other stakeholders in Cameroon.   

Keywords: socio-economic, child marriage, wellbeing, girl-child, agenda 2030, development in Cameroon.

 

Nabulya Justine
Susan Nankunda
Masibo Sharon
Institue of Advanced Leadership
Uganda

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

The Relationship Between MSMEs and Poverty Eradication in Makindye Division Kampala, Uganda
The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) list "poverty" and "entrepreneurship" as two of its seventeen many components. This paper delves into the relationship between MSMEs and poverty eradication, looking at a case study of Makidye Division. The objective of this research was to enlighten the patterns of poverty in Makindye Division, the characteristics of MSMEs in the region, research limitations, and possible steps to eradicate poverty in Uganda by 2030.  In addition, the paper uses data and literature from Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS) and the Ministry of Trade Industry and Cooperatives. The finding of the study revealed that majority of the MSMEs are operated by youths between 18-30years and were mostly women. It was also revealed that majority of the business owners have a low level of education as well as half the MSME were registered as sole proprietorships. The findings also revealed that the onset of Covid-19 affected the performance of most of the MSME and many had to either close or cut down the number of employees. Finally, the paper recommended that there should be support of market certainty for MSMEs products, particularly for MSEs to sustain the production cycle through digitalization; business owners be equipped to have the right mindset towards business; there should be formation of business incubator programs to help upcoming businesses to start right and avoid mistakes made by the already existing MSMEs; and have promotion mechanism for inter-institutional collaboration among MSMEs.

Keywords: MSMEs and Poverty Eradication, Alleviation in Makindye Division Kampala Uganda, Capacity Building, Youth, Men and Women Mindset, Entrepreneurship, Skilling and Technology, Seed Capital, Value Addition, Mentorship for Economic Growth, Sustainable Employment

 

Warner Woodworth
University of Utah

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

Ending Poverty and Inequality: What Matters and Why
In attempting to articulate the ugly nature of both inequality and poverty, we explore the realities of what life is like for the world’s Have-Nots. The suffering of the “poorest of the poor” has been exacerbated by the past several years of COVID-19 and its toll in terms of illness, death, and economic challenges. Virtually all areas of the globe have faced new hardships, whether Latin America, Asia, Africa, the Mediterranean and/or Middle East, North America, Australia, and Europe. This study utilizes the process of action research to design new social enterprises, implement them, apply field work methods for collecting data, and hereby documenting the results. The focus will center on grassroots innovations to design nonprofit organizations that go beyond humanitarian relief to generate real change, deep, substantive and sustainable strategies. Two facets of this work are explored. The first area of this research is social entrepreneurship, an approach by which students and professors are activists focused on reducing human suffering in its many forms The second is that of microfinance in which tiny loans are given to poor women to enable them to rise from abject poverty. Small, Utah-based techniques have arisen in college classrooms as laboratories for social innovation. After their development as practical models, they have then been implemented in communities of the poor in dozens of countries. Their methods are explained, and results are reported and assessed which demonstrate the UNSDGs can be significantly addressed, and lives of the global poor can be ameliorated in pursuing long-term economic self-sufficiency.  

Key Words: Poverty, Inequality, United Nations, Sustainable Development Goals  

 

       
       

SDG 2: Zero hunger

Presenters   Title and Absract

Bebe Alfred Dembele
Institute of Rural Economy

Sisi Dembele
Souleymane Sisi Traore
University of Social Science and Management of Bamaki
Mali

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

Dynamique Spatio-Temporelle de l’occupation de sol et de son Implication á la Sécurité alimentaire en Zone Cotonniére de Mali 
The cotton-growing area of Mali is subject to very strong anthropogenic pressure. For several decades, the strong demographic growth combined with the introduction of cash crops and the popularization of new agricultural techniques have led to a modification of the space. So to meet food needs, farms remain in an extensive logic to ensure food self-sufficiency. It is in this perspective that this article sets itself the objective of evaluating the dynamics of land use and its implication on food security in the lands of Benguéné and Ziguéna in the cotton zone. To do this, a set of Landsat images acquired during four periods (1987, 1998, 2009 and 2018) were used to quantify the spatio-temporal dynamics of land use units. Data from the General Population and Housing Censuses (GPH) were used to project the population in 2018 in order to estimate cereal needs according to the FAO standard for the different census dates and to put them into perspective. related to land use dynamics. The results from these classifications were integrated into a modeling approach using the CA-Markov chain to understand the future dynamics of land cover. The proven results that in general the dynamics of land use are highly dependent on food needs and that by 2028 the land will be faced with a problem of saturation of agricultural space. In a low-intensity production system where the land is almost saturated, producers will be forced to develop other strategies to ensure food security, namely a strong intensification of production systems as part of an agro-ecological approach, the development other income generating activities (AGR) and also to promote family planning. The results also attempt to shed light on current practices in terms of sustainable management of natural resources and food security strategies in the face of the challenges of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), plus the indicators for Goals 2, 9. and 15 of the SDGs.

Keywords: Human pressure, Spatial dynamics, food security, Modeling

 

Priyanka Prem Kumar
Ankur Rangi
Anirban Roy
AI for Rural
India

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

Assessment of Sustainable Food Systems in Mountain Regions of India Through Climate Smart Agriculture During Covid-19 Pandemic: The Case Study of AI for Rural
The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2.4 states that “By 2030, ensure sustainable food production and resilient agricultural practices.” As per the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO-UN (2018): one in every three mountain people in developing countries are vulnerable to food insecurity. The largest source of livelihood in India is Agriculture and about 70 percent of its rural households still depend on it. Indian mountain agriculture has always been tagged with some basic limitations including remoteness, inaccessibility, marginality, and vulnerability (FAO, 2019). Farming in hilly areas is mostly rain-dependent and faces several constraints such as irrigation facilities, climatic limitations, infrastructure restrictions. management limitations and socio-economic restraints have impacted Indian agrarian society and resurfaced bottlenecks in current farming practices, particularly in vulnerable regions. 
To meet the needs of current and future generations, it is critical to accelerate implementation and track the development of sustainable food systems so that we can improve the livelihoods of marginal households in the rural and mountain regions. In this research paper, we will be doing extensive research on how Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) will help farming systems achieve increased productivity and build resilient frameworks to tackle climate change. We also intend to investigate the erratic effects of climate change, i.e., droughts, irregular rainfall, and create pathways for better infrastructure. Finally, we will also examine how the digital solutions, through gamification, assist farmers in making informed crop selection decisions and reducing Greenhouse emissions.
 
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Sustainable Food Systems, Climate Smart Agriculture, Sustainable Mountain Development, Public and Private Partnerships.

 

Isaac Okola
KCA University
Kenya

 

Published Paper

PRERECORDED

    The Contribution of Input-Output Multi-Objective Optimization Model of Sustainable Consumption and Production in Food-Energy-Water Nexus
Food, energy and water are essential for human survival. These resources consume each other thus enhancing security in one resource can reduce security in another resource. Multiobjective optimization approaches have been used to understand the complexity associated with the Food, Energy Water (FEW) Nexus. However most of these approaches focus on either maximizing resource production or minimizing resource consumption in the FEW Nexus but not addressing the two simultaneously. To achieve sustainability of the FEW Nexus sustainable consumption and production of the resources need to be emphasized. In this paper, the Input-Output theory is used to develop a multiobjective optimization model that minimizes resource intensities. Minimizing resource intensities results into minimized consumption and maximized production of resources in the nexus. Using the developed model simulations are carried out to demonstrate its applicability in FEW Nexus. The results show that the model can be used to explore alternative ways of minimizing consumption and maximizing production simultaneously based on the concept of non-dominated solutions.
 
Keywords: Input-Output Theory, Food-Energy-Water Nexus, Multiobjective Optimization Model, Sustainable Consumption and Production
 
       

SDG 3: Good health and well-being

Presenters   Title and Absract

Andre Ben Moses Akuche
Precious Tariela Ebikabowei Victor
Madonna University
Nigeria

Kennedy Nsan
Obafemi Awolowo University
Nigeria

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

The Universal Health Coverage in Nigeria: The Perception of Public Health Professionals Towards the United Nations Sustainable Development
The Ministry of Health have vast potential to facilitate the realization of universal health coverage (UHC) and health system development in Nigeria. Until now, significant gaps exist and threaten its sustainability in many low-income and middle-income countries. Therefore, this study examined nurses’ knowledge of UHC for inclusive and sustainable development in healthcare professional practice. This study was a cross-sectional survey. A convenience sample of 125 currently practicing auxiliary, pediatric and critical-care nurses was recruited. Respondents completed a questionnaire which was based on the perception, evaluation, implementation strategies advocated by the WHO Global Forum for nursing officers. Questions covered the government initiative, healthcare financing policy, human resources policy, and the respondents’ perception of importance and contribution of nurses in achieving UHC. The results of the study revealed that the effect of nurses’ knowledge on UHC on perception of development of healthcare services was significant (β = .38; F= 23.29; p < .00). Also, the contribution of the role of nurses in Nigeria was significant to the improvement in the perception of the universal health services for health workers [β = .39; F = 32.77; p < .00] and the challenges faced by nurses was statistically significant to the decline in achievement recorded in the universal health coverage [β=.42; F = 27.19; p < .00]. In addition, nurses in both clinical practice and management perceived themselves as having more contribution and importance than those in education. They were relatively indifferent to healthcare policy and politics. The study concluded that the survey uncovered a considerable knowledge gap in nurses’ knowledge of UHC in healthcare professional practice and shed light on the need for nurses to be more attuned to healthcare policy towards achieving the UN SDGs Goal 3. The educational curriculum for nurses should be strengthened to include studies in public policy and advocacy. Nurses can make a difference through their participation in the development and implementation of UHC in healthcare services.

Key Words: Nurses Knowledge, Universal Health Coverage, Nigerian Healthcare Policy

 

Emmett Chad
Ron Harris
Brigham Young University

Sarah Hall
Utah Valley University


Carolus Prasetyadi
Universitas Pembangunan Nasional "Veteran" Yogyakarta

Indonesia

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    Tsunami Preparedness in Indonesia: The WAVES Initiative

The Indonesia archipelago is highly vulnerable to earthquakes and tsunamis. The WAVES initiative uses experts in geology, engineering, communications, public health, and geology in a multi-disciplinary, cross-cultural effort to better understand and communicate risk to federal and local government agencies, schools, businesses, and communities. Efforts include logging trenches dug on coastal plains to prospect for historical tsunami deposits, developing localized inundation maps, conducting social surveys on perceptions of tsunami threat and efficacy, creating and delivering educational sessions including the “20/20/20 principle” to schools and communities, identifying localized safe zones out of the inundation zone and within a timely walking distance, conducting tsunami evacuation drills, mapping evacuation signs, conducting interviews, and working with local and federal government officials and schools to create evacuation plans. This paper details our research findings and corresponding educational intervention.

Key words: Tsunami, Indonesia, Natural Hazards, Education, Mitigation

 

Alice Chen
Laura Duffany
Kathleen Gifford
Katie Goettle
Dream Intarachumnum
Lauryn Jones
Wei Ngai
Tiffany Pang
Heidi Shen
Jannah Wing

Lehigh University

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    Reducing Child Mortality in Sierra Leone with a Sustainable Diagnostics Device for Sickle Cell Disease

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic blood disorder that affects more than 250 million people globally (Ilesanmi, 2010). The disease arises from an abnormal variant of hemoglobin in the bloodstream, which causes healthy red blood cells to assume a sickle shape. Aggregations of these atypical blood cells can inhibit circulation and lead to many health complications that can become fatal if left untreated. When the disease reached the United States during the 20th century, there were sufficient resources for the innovation of advanced diagnostic procedures to identify SCD in its early stages. However, low-to-middle income countries (LMICs) in Sub- Saharan Africa lack the means to effectively cope with the disease, thus demonstrating the healthcare inequalities between LMICs and developed countries. Between 50-90% of SCD- affected individuals in this region die before the age of 5, accounting for over half of the global SCD-related deaths in children under 5 (Tshilolo, 2019). To address this health crisis, the Lehigh University Sickle Cell Diagnostics team (SicklED) is developing a low-cost, point-of-care screening device for SCD that is designed for implementation as a neonatal standard operating procedure (SOP) in local hospitals. Because the lateral flow device is paper-based, its fabrication is sustainable and easily constructible without advanced medical training. With help from sponsors and the team’s established network of healthcare and social workers in Sierra Leone, SicklED’s plan is to assist the efforts present in Sub-Saharan Africa to help raise public awareness of the importance of healthcare and definitively diagnose SCD in these regions.

Keywords: sickle cell disease, lateral flow device, test strips, sustainable global health, low-cost diagnostic, LMIC

 

Gabrielle Hoyer
UCSF/Berkeley

Sam Philips
Audrey Pozernick
University of Utah

Mohan Sudabattula
Project Embrace

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

Understanding the True Healthcare Impact of Nonprofits Serving the Navajo Tribe During the Covid-19 Pandemic
Undeniably, the disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has elevated healthcare needs and regressed advancement made toward Sustainable Development Goal 3. Marginalized and low-resource populations, such as the Navajo tribe, were disproportionately affected by the pandemic, as was seen in metrics such as morbidity rates, food security, and domestic abuse/ intimate partner violence occurrences. As a result, the pandemic exposed heightened pain points of vulnerable populations and introduced opportunities for nonprofits to address the urgent healthcare needs of susceptible communities. This paper determines the sustainable impact of the medical supply campaigns hosted by 501c(3), Project Embrace, as a case study to further evaluate the success of nonprofits and the progress of Sustainable Development Goals during the pandemic.

Keywords: Indigenous, Healthcare, Nonprofit, Pandemic, Rural, Supply Chain

 

Karuna Jain
Sandhya Mishra
Indian Institute of Technology
India

 

Published in Conference Proceedings

PRERECORDED

   

Can Just Any Country Achieve UHC?: Lessons from Different Health Systems
The UN’s Sustainable Development Goals-3, to ensure healthy lives and promote well‑being for all at all ages, adopts Universal health coverage (UHC) as one of the targets to reduce the inequality and fight poverty. Universal Health coverage (UHC) is the aspiration of the world and the global impetus for a very long time now. Even though WHO shares a framework to achieve UHC, there is no universal way to achieve it, thus, there exists many pathways depending on the socio-economic and political issues faced by the country and yet none of the single pathway is complete in itself to sustain the coverage. Hence we see countries seek to diversify the sources of revenue by using hybrid financing models or make healthcare reforms to sustain UHC. This calls for an innovation in the ways healthcare system is financed. There are many policy levers and combination of factors that may help when implemented to achieve UHC that is inclusive and sustainable in the long-run. Pursuing UHC though is expensive, complex and definitely not easy, but it is achievable.
The study reviews the evolution of diverse health systems of 5 distinct countries (Japan, Thailand, Rwanda, Brazil and Turkey) into achieving UHC as well as draws useful lessons to attain universal coverage for India and any aspiring country from their experience.

KEY WORDSUHC, Universal healthcare, sustainable development goals, health systems, components of health system

 

Mireille Sylviane Dongmo Nguepi
Bernard Tientcheu
Achidi Aduni Ufuan
University of Buea
Cameroon

 

Published Paper

PRERECORDED

   

The State of Food Security and Nutrition: Building Climate Resilience for Food Security and Nutrition in the South West Region, Cameroon
Purpose: Climate change poses a growing threat to the achievement of adequate nutrition; it is projected to negatively affect human wellbeing and nutrition. The aim of this paper is to compare empirical literature from FAO food composition table (FCT) (1966) with our actual nutrients experimental data, to better understand the pathways linking climate change and nutrition after a period of 55 years (1966-2022) and to provide mitigating/resilience studies for this global syndemic between climate change and nutrition. 
Design: A conceptual search on climate change related conditions that may affect agricultural/food/water chain and quality in South West region Cameroon was done. Secondly, staple foods were purchased to establish and compare their nutrient composition with the FCT. In a bid to mitigate and be resilient to the impact of climate on nutrients deficit, two pilot food studies (nutrients enhancement studies) were conducted in partnership with local small scale producers 
Findings: Results of conceptual framework revealed that, heat-waves, droughts, heavy precipitations and floods, due to climate and global environmental change events could be the key drivers behind the rise in malnutrition because they impact on water, crop yields, vegetation and food security. Furthermore, comparing 1966 food composition table with the analysed chosen staple foods showed a significant decrease of the micronutrient content with years; indicating that food systems are vulnerable to the increased variability in the weather and ecosystem as a result of climate change. Pilot studies with our partners revealed that formulated Fortified foods studied improved the micronutrients adequacy. 

Keywords: Climate change, Nutrition, Food composition table, Human health, Nutrient, Staple foods, Food security

 

Esum M.E.
Roland N. Ndip
Sumbele I. U.N

Cameroon

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

Trends of Malaria in the South West Region of Cameroon: Overview, Challenges, and Perspectives
Background: The South West Region of Cameroon falls in the large equatorial forest of the south, where malaria parasite transmission is high and perennial. It is one of the two English- Speaking Regions affected by the on-going social crisis with displaced populations which could constitute an enormous challenge to malaria control efforts. If we hope to attain Target 3.3 of the Sustainable Development Goals, then it matters that evidence-based data as the basis for aggressive measures to reduce the burden of malaria in the region be generated. A review of the literature of malaria in the region was done to establish a trend in epidemiological, parasitological and entomological indicators of malaria and identify gaps in knowledge and make proposals for future steps.
 Methods: A total of 47 scientific and policy documents were extracted from online bibliographic databases and reviewed. The major findings were noted, the gaps identified and future steps proposed.
Major findings: Plasmodium falciparum is the dominant species responsible for malaria infection in the region. Infection in children, pregnant women and adults range from 7.1% to 43.3%, 20.3% to 43% and 5.38% to 25.6%, respectively. The main vector that transmits malaria is the Anopheles gambiae s.l. Artemisinin and its derivatives are the drugs for malaria treatment. 
Conclusion: All the studies conducted on malaria over the years were sporadic in nature and no trends of malaria transmission in the region could be established. 
Perspectives: There is need for longitudinal prospective studies to monitor trends in malaria in the region.

Key words and phrases: South West Region, Malaria, Trends, Epidemiology, Social crisis, Sustainable Development Goal.

 

Chunhong Yan
He University
China

 

Published Paper

PRERECORDED

 

For Objective 3: Good Health and Well-Being Eye Health Management
The "Specially Invited Major Report on Global Eye Health" published by The Lancet Global Health pointed out that 1.1 billion people have untreated vision impairment by 2020, this number will be increased to 1.8 billion in 2050. The incidence of vision abnormalities in China is rapidly expanding and tends to be younger. Vision problems seriously affect the healthy growth of children and adolescents, which have become a public health issue of increasing concern. According to the results of a joint survey conducted by the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Health, the incidence of myopia in China exceeds 60%, ranking first in the world, which is a threat to the health of children and adolescents as well as the sustainability of social-economic development. Refractive error is the main cause of abnormal vision development in preschool children, it is also the most common cause of amblyopia and strabismus in children. This study will explore an efficient and convenient method of ophthalmology public health screening through cross-sectional screening of vision and refractive status for children and adolescents in China. For Kaleidos, a portable optometry device, the refractive status of adolescents and children will be tested, and the influencing factors by parents will be surveyed, obtain the original test data. To compare with the diagnosis of the medical optometrist and the screening results (gold standard), analyze the reliability and validity of the Kaleidos screening results to determine whether Kaleidos can correctly classify the tested population into the corresponding myopia category, the unconditional Logistic regression model is used to conduct a binary multi-factor analysis of related influencing factors after stepwise regression, the main influencing factors were screened out, and the correlation with the prevalence was analyzed. Accurate vision test data will help the World Health Organization and domestic health agencies to allocate the limited health resources when formulating effectively and reasonably eye health hygiene strategies. The research results can also be used as the basis for the evaluation of Kaleidos screening results, which can provide information on the reliability and validity of the optometry equipment for the field of eye health and blindness prevention, and provide a new screening method for eye health management in China. If the problem of preventable early vision loss in adolescents is solved, it will play an important role in realizing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs203) of China and the United Nations as a whole.

Keywords: ophthalmic public health, refractive errors, screening modalities, screening tools

 

       

SDG 4: Quality education

Presenters   Title and Absract

Baktybek Abdrisaev
Utah Valley University

Rusty Butler
Russian Academy of Natural Sciences

Wendy Jyang
Utah China Friendship Improvement Sharing Hands Development and Cooperation

Teki Uday
AI for Rural

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    Inclusive Co-Curricular Educational Model for Implementation of Sustainable Development for Rural and Mountain Communities

Target 4.7 of the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development aims to ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including through education for sustainable development. 

This paper discusses its implementation at Utah Valley University (UVU) through an inclusive co-curricular student engaged learning (SEL) model, which provides an opportunity for students to advocate for sustainable mountain development (SMD) in Utah and elsewhere. SEL encourages students to solve real-world problems as a group, with a faculty member serving as a mentor. 

Utah International Mountain Forum UIMF), a coalition of student clubs at UVU, is an extracurricular part of the model: it involves students, especially nontraditional or adult learners, in SMD activities beyond a single semester. Adult students enhance or change their careers while taking care of families. To overcome adult students’ reluctance to engage in club activities, the model provides incentives, such as flexible activity schedules, integration of their experience into group efforts, and recognition at the United Nations level. Through the curricular programs, mentors build stronger ties with adult students and encourage them to join UIMF.  

Since 2011, the model encourages students to contribute experiences, solicit funds, and gain recognition for SMD advocacy. Our assessment shows that students learn how to tie their own experiences to SMD, implement initiatives collaboratively, build partnerships on different levels, and then use accumulated knowledge for engagement in SMD activities beyond the semester.

Keywords: mountain communities, adult students, student engaged learning.

 

Faïssou Amadou
Ministry of Labour and Civil Service
Benin

 

Published Paper

PRERECORDED

    Strengthening Civil Society Capacity for Education for All In Republic of Benin: The Important Role of Universities and Other Research Institutions

This report tends to track the Benin’s progress in the implementation of SDG 4, understanding what hinders its complete achievement in terms of capacity and to recognize best practices moving forwards. It recognizes the civil society organizations as good contributors and presents their needs to address the major challenges in education sector with just eight years left to the 2030 deadline. It explores the kinds of support universities can quickly bring to civil society in terms of capacity, competence gaps filling and multi-stakeholder’s engagement in education area. 
It develops a formalized and concrete mechanism within which University researchers and teachers work in partnership with Civil Society Organizations to create knowledge that can produce urgent and rapid solutions in education area to reach the 2030 target. 
The research calls for a necessary paradigm shift in the role played by universities and other education institutions in supporting Civil Society Organizations, particularly those operating in quality education, to make them fit to educational global development agenda.

Keywords : Civil society  performance  Education 2030 Agenda

 

Joy Ayebare
Racheal Babirye
Kenneth Wabuteya
Institute of Advanced Leadership
Uganda

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    A Study of Enhancing the E-Learning and the 21st Century Competence Skills Training in Institutions of Higher Learning

This report tends to track the Benin’s progress in the implementation of SDG 4, understanding what hinders its complete achievement in terms of capacity and to recognize best practices moving forwards. It recognizes the civil society organizations as good contributors and presents their needs to address the major challenges in education sector with just eight years left to the 2030 deadline. It explores the kinds of support universities can quickly bring to civil society in terms of capacity, competence gaps filling and multi-stakeholder’s engagement in education area. 
It develops a formalized and concrete mechanism within which University researchers and teachers work in partnership with Civil Society Organizations to create knowledge that can produce urgent and rapid solutions in education area to reach the 2030 target. 
The research calls for a necessary paradigm shift in the role played by universities and other education institutions in supporting Civil Society Organizations, particularly those operating in quality education, to make them fit to educational global development agenda.

Keywords : Civil society  performance  Education 2030 Agenda

 

Jihong Cai
USA

 

Published Paper

PRERECORDED

    Instituting Dynamics and Practical Experiences in K-12 Education in Underdeveloped Regions: Redefinition, Augmentation, and Diversification of Teaching Qualification to Promote Equitable Educational Access

Sustainable Development Goals 4.c calls for sustainably supplying abundant and sufficient qualified educators. However, longitudinal studies have shown that teacher attrition has become a central issue in maintaining and recruiting qualified and talented individuals to join the industry. Many attributes contribute to the issue, while specific causes, such as the gaps in the support they need and the average payment teachers get, have lagged the sustainably delivering qualified teachers. Moreover, this issue causes more significant damage considering the disproportional distribution of educational resources, disadvantaging the underrepresented and underprivileged communities.
There are two routes to diminishing the effect and solving the problem: maintaining existing human resources and developing new sources to train and afford instructors. This paper focuses on the latter part of the solution and calls for the reconstruction of teaching qualification programs that many states and educational organizations have developed. In conjunction with Robert Sternberg’s Successful Intelligence Theory, this paper analyzes the educational implication of the modification from the perspectives of students’ motivation, practical and creative skills development, injecting real-world experiences in classrooms, and creating an environment that enables students to have higher exposure to practical problems. This paper further discusses how the redefined teaching qualification promotes more equitable educational access taking into consideration of the local situation, and how such a model has expansive application around the globe.

Keywords: Teaching qualification, professional education, educational access, and K-12 education.

 

Joyce Coffey
Melanie Mosqueda
Youth Research Vox

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

Racial Diversity- A Secret of High-Performing School Districts Across the United States
The United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development clearly states that the aim of the Sustainable Development Goal 4 is to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all. In the United States, one long-standing challenge for creating inclusive and equitable educational opportunities in public schools is the deep skepticism toward racial diversity. Although many studies tackle this issue from a socioeconomic perspective, our study aims to uncover the academic benefits of racial diversity to all students. Extracting data from the Stanford Education Data Archive (SEDA), which includes longitudinal data of state testing scores over a ten-year span, we conducted descriptive and independent-samples t-tests to measure the differences in racial diversity between high- and low-performing school districts. The quantitative data analysis of 300 U.S. school districts showed that at any given socioeconomic level: high, low, or national-average, there is a significant difference in racial diversity between high- and low-performing school districts. High-performing districts at all three socioeconomic levels are more racially diverse compared to low-performing districts. This reveals that contrary to the stereotype that more students of color mean lower academic performance, racial diversity of a student body translates to higher academic performance and standardized test scores.

Keywords: quality education, racial segregation, school choice, academic performance, socioeconomic status, sustainable development goals

 

Girish Dalvi
Tanaya Vyas
Indian Institute of Technology
India

 

Published Paper

PRERECORDED

    Perspectives on Integrating the Local Context for Environmental Literacy: An Exploratory Study with Middle-School Teachers in India

The purpose of this integrative literature review paper is to examine, from an angle of sustainability, how culture can contribute to the localization and achievement of SDGs. Specifically, this paper is to 1) reflect on the synergies between culture, ESD, and people-based Sustainable Development (SD), and 2) examine studies involving youths as the future potential for achieving the SDGs through culture. A varied range of literature was analysed to set up a method of inductive thinking, starting with specific examples and inferring towards generalizations. Drawn on studies from tangible and intangible heritages, the results identified two emerging thematic areas: 1) how culture presents future opportunities for achieving SD and provides a solid understanding on the synergies between culture and ESD, and 2) how culture has aided the progression of SD through youth engagement. The implication of the present study is to uncover strong connections between culture and SDGs and inherited reasons why culture matters for SDGs. More importantly, the paper highlights culture is not “good to consider” but must be taken into consideration as an intrinsic domain of human existence in all efforts to achieve SD.

Keywords: culture, cultural sustainability; Education for Sustainable Development; SDG 18; youth empowerment; people-based Sustainable Development.

 

Kenna Lee Edler
Jonghwi Park
The United Nations University Institute for the Advance Study of Sustainability
Japan

 

Published Paper

PRERECORDED

 

    Culture and the Sustainable Development Goals: An Outlook of Future Opportunities

The purpose of this integrative literature review paper is to examine, from an angle of sustainability, how culture can contribute to the localization and achievement of SDGs. Specifically, this paper is to 1) reflect on the synergies between culture, ESD, and people-based Sustainable Development (SD), and 2) examine studies involving youths as the future potential for achieving the SDGs through culture. A varied range of literature was analysed to set up a method of inductive thinking, starting with specific examples and inferring towards generalizations. Drawn on studies from tangible and intangible heritages, the results identified two emerging thematic areas: 1) how culture presents future opportunities for achieving SD and provides a solid understanding on the synergies between culture and ESD, and 2) how culture has aided the progression of SD through youth engagement. The implication of the present study is to uncover strong connections between culture and SDGs and inherited reasons why culture matters for SDGs. More importantly, the paper highlights culture is not “good to consider” but must be taken into consideration as an intrinsic domain of human existence in all efforts to achieve SD.

Keywords: culture, cultural sustainability; Education for Sustainable Development; SDG 18; youth empowerment; people-based Sustainable Development.

 

Barb Hudkins
Martina King
Tai Munro
MacEwan University
Canada

 

Published Paper

PRERECORDED

    Building Capacity and Awareness for the UN Sustainable Development Goals Through Project-Based and Community-Engaged Pedagogies

Purpose - The key sustainability competencies are fundamental to sustainability transformations. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of project-based and community-engaged pedagogies in supporting student development of all key sustainability competencies. Additionally, the study examines whether the UN SDGs provide an appropriate framework to support engagement with the breadth of sustainability topics and increase awareness and support of the goals within the community.
Design - This case study triangulates scaled self-assessment, performance observation, and regular course work in an undergraduate interdisciplinary sustainability course to gain insights into how all key sustainability competencies can be developed through recommended pedagogies.
Findings - Project-based and community-engaged pedagogies are supportive of key sustainability competencies development. The act of engaging with an interdisciplinary group towards achieving a common goal created effective learning opportunities for students. However, the project-based and community-engaged pedagogies cannot be completely separated from the context of the course. The use of the SDGs to guide community partner participation and project development was effective in increasing awareness of the goals among students and community partners.
Implications - These findings support the use of project-based and community-engaged pedagogies to facilitate student development of key sustainability competencies.
Originality - This study demonstrates that using the SDGs to guide community partner participation and project development is effective both in facilitating a wide range of projects from the identified areas of sustainability: environment, economic, social, and cultural, and in increasing awareness of the goals among students and community organizations.

Keywords: sustainability competencies; sustainable development goals; community-engaged learning; project-based learning; pedagogies

 

Eunmi Joung
Utah Valley University

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

The Effect of Different Instructional Methods and Beliefs towards Mental Computations
The purpose of this research are threefold: 1) to compare the outcomes of preservice teachers’ mental computation performance of whole numbers, integers, and rational numbers, using the three different instructional approaches (i.e., direct teaching, open approach, and control group), 2) to identify which operations showed a marked difference on the Mental Computation Test (MCT) performance for each group, and 3) to measure the changes in positivity or negativity of belief towards learning written and mental computations after an intervention. PTs in the K-8 Teacher Education Program participated in this study. A mixed research method is used for this study. Specifically, a quasi-experimental design is employed using a pre-and post-MCT that consists of 69 items in relation to whole numbers, integers, and rational numbers (i.e., fractions, decimals, and percents). A one-way analysis of covariance is used to reveal if there is a statistically significant difference in post-MCT scores. In addition, the Mathematics Attitudes Survey (MAS) is designed to analyze preservice teachers’ positivity or negativity of belief regarding their mental computation and written computation learning. This study aims to contribute to the existing body of research that provides useful insights for mathematics educators on how to effectively apply instructional approaches to promote diverse students’ mathematics knowledge of mental computations and to provide useful information as a measure of current preservice teachers’ mental computation ability and beliefs on mental computation.

KEYWORDS mental computations, direct teaching, open approach, preservice teachers, attitudes towards learning mental computations 

 

Rungrawee Samawathdana
Chulalongkorn University
Thailand

 

Published Paper

PRERECORDED

    The First Phase of Development of Health Learning Package by Applying Technology Based with Autonomous Learning Approach to Enhance Covid-19 Literacy and Health Behaviors as Lifelong Learning Skills

This paper demonstrated the first phase of Development of Health Learning Package by Applying Technology-Based with Autonomous Learning Approach to Enhance Covid-19 Literacy and Health Behaviors as Lifelong Learning Skills. Qualitative method was organized. Guideline questions for semi-structured interview as a research instrument were developed using content validate to constructed component of the Health Learning Package (HeL-pack). This paper presented the finding in part of the component including (1) the stated concept of Covid-19 literacy, (2) the manual for HeL-Pack including guidelines to practice autonomous learning, application of using technology, (3) pre-test for Health literacy (HL) and Health behavior (HB), (4) learning activities, (5) learning materials and (6) post- test for HL and HB.

Keywords: Health Learning Package; Health literacy; Health behavior; technological and autonomous learning approaches

 

Lauren Taylor
Utah Valley University

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

The Power of Educating Women and Ending Generational Poverty: A Comparative Study of Women in Ghana and Liberia
The movement of female empowerment throughout the world is not only affecting the livelihood of the individual, but the livelihood of entire nations. One of the most prominent forces of empowerment is education. When a woman is offered the opportunity to learn, whether formally or informally, she increases the capacity of her community to force its way out of oppression and raise the living conditions of her neighbors. There is a current struggle for education which is very present in West African countries. This struggle is especially apparent when considering female education rates in relation to the most developed countries in the world. This poses an immediate need to incentivize parents within these countries to send their daughters to school and finish their formal education. By addressing this struggle through incentive programs, we can see a greater access for young girls and a change in the cultural behaviors and values that surround this form of gender equality. This study delves into the why behind education affecting poverty, specifically targeting the ways that women allocate resources back into home communities and improve the experience of all members of society. All information will support the conclusion that as female education rates increase, poverty rates will decrease. 

Keywords: Female Empowerment, Poverty, Educating Women, Formal Education, West Africa, Incentive Programs, Generational Poverty

 

     

SDG 5: Gender equality

Presenters   Title and Absract

Cristen Dalessandro
Daniel Patterson
O.C. Tanner Institute

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    Who Gets to Choose? A Global Perspective on Gender, Work-Life Balance, and Choice in the Post-Pandemic Workplace

Post-2020, there is evidence of persistent gender inequities both at work and at home, which research has shown can limit women’s work choices. Thus, it is urgent that we investigate gender differences in domestic responsibilities among working parents and the potential impact of these differences on work choice. Using an original dataset with employees who have internet access in select countries in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia (N=3,147), we conducted logistic regression analysis to explore whether employees felt they had a choice in where they do their work. In addition to gender, we considered how childcare responsibilities, housework responsibility, self-identified “minority” status, education, workspace model (hybrid, remote, in-office or on-site), and country influenced employee perceptions of choice. Notably, in addition to significant differences between countries, education, and according to “minority” status, we found that men (OR: 1.23; 95%CI 1.04-1.47) and those stating that a partner was responsible for all or most of the housework (OR: 1.45; 95%CI 1.06-1.98) and childcare (OR: 2.72; 95%CI 1.95-3.78) reported feeling they had more choice regarding where they work. Additional chi-square analyses found significant gender differences in the distribution of housework and childcare responsibilities. These results suggest that working women still shoulder more of the childcare and housework responsibilities globally, and this unequal distribution of responsibility could have an impact on women’s perceptions of their choices when it comes to work.

KEYWORDS: Gender; Work; Work-Life Balance; Working Parents; Gender Inequality; Work Choice

 

Kimberly Madsen
Indiana University

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

Can Performance and Representation Improve Public Perceptions of Police Legitimacy in Pursuing Domestic Violence Case?
This paper explores how including women on police forces may improve outcomes for women and increase public perception of police legitimacy when addressing domestic violence. The theory of representative bureaucracy suggests that bureaucracies will be more responsive to the public and may garner additional legitimacy when they reflect the demographics of those they serve (Mosher 1968). This paper examines female representation in Kosovo, a country that has experienced ethnic conflict and gender violence and employs an experimental survey to understand how women rate police officers responding to domestic violence in the areas of trust, seriousness in carrying out investigations, and fairness. In the scenario where a respondent had little information about the policies of a force and could only see the demographic makeup of police, representation became an important influence for women on how they rated legitimacy of police in all areas. In the scenario where a policy was enacted that would benefit victims of domestic violence, performance mattered to both men and women for all three dimensions of legitimacy, whereas information on whether a man or woman enacted the policy had little impact. Implications of these findings are that if citizens know little about their police forces, representation becomes increasingly important. But even a less representative force can gain legitimacy by enacting effective policies that benefit less represented groups.

Keywords: gender, domestic violence, post-conflict, representation, policing

 

Balram Rao
Kunal Rao
Indian Institute of Technology
India

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    Gender Disparities in Educational Attainments: Does Gender Gaps Matter?

In today's globally competitive environment, educational attainment plays an important role from empowerment of the communities to sustain the higher growth. However, in a society as deeply stratified as India, disparities in education within social groups can be observed through various distributions, such as religion, caste, and gender, among others. In this paper, we empirically examine educational enrolment functions and conditions of enrolment within marginalized groups. The mixed methodology is used for collecting empirical data through extensive field work carried out in western districts of India’s most populated province known as ‘Uttar Pradesh’. Further, the gender difference in educational attainment is decomposed within social groups to understand the individual factors most responsible for the differential treatment. The findings describe that within disadvantaged groups, a consistent feature is widespread gender disparity in educational attainment for uncleaned occupational scheduled caste girls. Apart from economic factors, the analysis describes that the treatment of sons and daughters by parents is a potential explanation of the gender gap in education in India. Therefore, the persistent of such gender based discrimination in household expenditure on education has caused lot of challenges not only to achieve in educational attainment for girls in one of the largest province of world 2nd   most populous country but also in mitigating the widening of global gender gaps in way to achieve the sustainable development goals (SDGs).

Keywords: Educational attainments, Gender Gaps, Decomposition Analysis, SDGs,, India

 

Antra Singh
Interweave Ventures LLP
India

 

Published Paper

PRERECORDED

   

Differential Impact of School Closure on Adolescent Girls during Covid 19 Pandemic: A Study of Slum Dwellers in Delhi
Covid-19 impacted all fragments of society across the world but its impact seems to discriminate between poor and rich, old and young, male and female. These intersectional vulnerabilities paint a complex web of inter-connections that impact various segments based on determinants like age, gender, income status and others. The genesis of the paper lies in the wake of limited research on the social impact of Covid-19 and its consequences on young individuals, especially adolescent girls. This period is crucial for young girls as they undergo numerous transitions related to physical, mental and gendered expectations and decisions. The paper seeks to understand the factors these adolescent girls are exposed to due to the closure of schools from the lens of a consortium of NGOs working towards the empowerment of girls. The exploratory research was conducted using a mixed approach where response was collected from 100 adolescent girls to understand the problems faced by them during pandemic and in-depth interviews of 24 adolescent girls were carried to understand the exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity for vulnerability mapping and henceforth suggesting the measures required to mitigate the impact of school closure on adolescent girls during Covid 19 pandemic. The paper addresses the prime concern of Goal 5 of SDG which deals with achieving gender equality and empowering girls and women at a time when these girls are pulled back to domestic obligations due to school closure which is impacting their holistic development and if not addressed instantly might leave its effect for over a generation. 

Keywords: School Closure; Differential Impact; Vulnerability mapping; Adolescent Girls; Covid 19; Pandemic; NGO; Government; Policy

 

     

SDG 6: Clean water and sanitation

Presenters   Title and Absract

Jane-Francis TatahKihla Akoachere
Roy Lyonga Mbua
Engome Regina Wotany
University of Buea
Cameroon

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

Diarrheal Diseases and Evaluation of Inhabitants’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Water Safety, Sanitation and Hygiene in Cholera Endemic Localities of Douala, Cameroon
Purpose: In Cameroon, about 3.8 million people lack access to safe water and sanitation facilities. Frequent outbreaks of diarrhea diseases, particularly cholera, a diarrhea disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, occur in Douala due to inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). This has qualified the city of Douala as a cholera-endemic area. Recent outbreaks in Douala have increased in size.and occur towards the end of the dry season. This study determined the prevalence of diarrhea and evaluated inhabitants’ knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding WASH in cholera endemic localities of Douala.
Design/methodology/approach: A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted between July and September 2017 in three health districts: New Bell, Nylon and Deido, to evaluate inhabitants’ KAP, and diarrhea prevalence. A retrospective hospital-based study was conducted to determine diarrhea prevalence from 2011-2015. The Chi Square and multivariate regression were used to analyze data.   
Findings: Prevalence of diarrhea in community-based study (17.9%) was higher than 11.1% in the retrospective study. Overall, good KAP (mean score of ≥ 50% for knowledge and attitude and ≥ median score for practices) was observed respectively in 38%, 66% and 80% of respondents. Participants with good knowledge (p=0.066), good  attitude  (p=0.011) and good practices (p=0.084) on WASH were  less likely to have diarrhea than those with poor knowledge, poor attitude and poor practices. However, a significant association was observed only for good attitude.  
Originality/Value of the paper: This study has identified gaps in KAP and show that there is an urgent need for interventions to enhance behavioral change to prevent WASH-related diseases and promote health. Data generated could be used to monitor Cameroon’s progress towards the attainment of SDG 3, SDG 6 and SDG11. The research team intends to collaborate with the Douala Municipality and public health authorities to ensure improvement in WASH and behavioral change.

Key words: Diarrhea; Knowledge, Attitude and Practices; Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, Douala, Cameroon

 

Anna Cardall
Kaylee Tanner
Gustavious Williams
Brigham Young University

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    STARS-c, A Google Earth Engine Tool to Evaluate Long-Term Water Quality Trends Globally
We present the SpatioTemporal Analysis of Remotely Sensed chl-a tool (STARS-c) tool, based on Google Earth Engine (GEE) and Landsat data. STARS-c characterizes water quality trends for any water body globally.  STARS-c allows a user to outline a water body, select a time range, and apply a general or user-provided model to estimate chlorophyl-a (chl-a) concentrations. STARS-c generates maps of chl-a concentrations and provides chl-a concentrations over time. Historically, remote sensing data use required significant computational resources because of the data size. STARS-c leverages GEE which performs computations remotely and requires only a web browser. STARS-c can help manage water resources in a sustainable manner.
This paper primarily addresses UN Sustainability Goal 6: Clean Water and Sanitation, and Goals 11, 13, and 14: Sustainable Cities and Communities, Responsible Consumption and Production, Climate Action, and Life Below Water, respectively. STARS-c provides a long-term time history of water quality, including spatially distributed concentration maps which can be used to better manage water resources  and waste water treatment (G6), provide input to help design and plan sustainable cities by identifying impacted water bodies and trends (G11), help locate water and waste water treatment plants and evaluate waste water treatment effectiveness over the last 40 years (G13), provide data on long-term trends to help characterize and evaluate climate impacts and potential mitigation strategies (G13), and identify both sustainable and impacted water bodies to help address issues in life below water (G14).
 
Key words: chlorophyl concentration, water quality trends, remote sensing 
 

Aaron Kasule
Rebecca Nakato
Philip Nsubuga
Institute of Advanced Leadership
Uganda

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    The Study of Clean Water and Sanitation in Bunyenye and Bunyaka Villages in Luwero District SDG 6

Water scarcity affects over 40 percent of the people in the world. Although 2.1 billion people have improved water sanitation since 1990, dwindling drinking water supplies are affecting every continent. In Uganda, safe and affordable drinking water for all by 2030 requires investing in adequate infrastructure, providing sanitation facilities, encouraging hygiene, as well as protecting and restoring water-related ecosystems. Uganda has experienced two decades of economic growth, and there were also other factors leading to large population movement from rural to urban. However, the reversal of the trend of urban to rural migration occurred due to the coronavirus (COVID 19) and the lock down resulted in large numbers of people returning to villages which led to increased population figures and hiking the rates of poor sanitation and water pollution. Luwero District has an average per-capita consumption of 14 liters per a person per a day which is below the Ministry of Health recommended consumption of 20 liters per a person per a day. This paper explores perceptions and recommendations of the community on the challenges faced concerning water and sanitation and their solutions. The study objectives were to find out the number of water collection points, the distance to these water sources, status of these water points, adequacy of the water and remedies to the challenges. The study results showed that there were inadequate and poorly maintained water points in this community. We recommend a concerted effort of community awareness and sensitization to maintain and improve the available water points and full Government intervention in the water and sanitation issues under SDG 6. 

Key words; Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, Water Points, Health and Wellbeing, COVID 19

 

Siddharth Singh

India

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    Achieving Sustainable Development Goal 6 in India: Transforming Lives through Localisation

In 2015, 63.3% of Indian rural households and 19.7% of urban households did not have access to improved sanitation measures. World Bank has noted the severity and urgency of the situation by observing that more than 520 million people in India were defecating in the open. The adoption of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aligned with the Indian national development agenda concerning improved water and sanitation measures proved remarkably successful in the previous years. India has established an SDG localized model for adopting, implementing, and monitoring SDGs at national, sub-national, and local levels. SDG 6 deals with ensuring availability and sustainable management of water resources and sanitation for everyone has been translated into multiple governmental policies in India. The Indian government, under its flagship programme, Jal Jeevan Mission (National Water Mission) is committed to providing safe drinking water through individual household tap connections by 2024 to all households in rural India. Likewise, another prominent scheme of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Mission) demonstrated success by providing access to toilet facilities in the rural households and achieving the target of Open Defecation Free (ODF) in all the districts. With the help of a series of social welfare schemes and their continuous monitoring at all levels, India is making significant progress in achieving SDG 6. For these reasons, the Indian Goal 6 experiences become crucial for other countries and provide numerous learning opportunities for them.

Keywords: India, Localisation, SDGs, Sanitation, Sustainability, Water

 

     

SDG 7: Affordable and clean energy

Presenters   Title and Absract
Louis Musong Katche
Emmanuel Tanyi
Pierre Tsafack
University of Buea
Cameroon



Published Paper
PRERECORDED

   

Renewable Energy for Rural Electrification of Sub-Saharan Africa: Why It Matters
For over five decades, electricity grids in many Sub-Saharan African countries have been limited to urban areas, leaving the rural communities with no electricity. This is why it matters to have a paradigm shift from centralized urban grids to standalone micro-grids powered by renewable resources from rural localities. This paper describes an approach to designing such standalone systems. The approach, which is based on the concept of Renewable Energy Map, has been applied to the South-West Region of Cameroon. The Map, which identifies the locations of Renewable Resources and quantifies the electricity generation potential of each resource, has been used to design a Rural Electrification Master Plan for 480 villages of the South-West Region. As part of the Master Plan, 54 Renewable Power Generators have been designed. These include 18 Biomass Generators powered by Empty-Palm-Fruit Bunches, 16 Run-of-River Mini-Hydro Power Generators driven by fast flowing streams and rivers, 8 Waterfall-driven Mini-Hydro Power Generators and 12 standalone Solar Generators. The project is the fruit of a partnership between the University of Buea and the thirty-one Councils (Local Governments) of the South-West Region of Cameroon.

KeywordsRenewable Energy Map; Rural Electrification Master Plan; Empty Palm Fruit Bunches; Run-of-river Scheme

 

Nde Nguti
Divine Ngwashi
Emmanuel Tanyi
University of Buea
Cameroon

 

Published Paper

PRERECORDED

 

Improvement of the Livelihoods of Rural Populations of Sub-Saharan Africa Through Post-Harvest and Cook Technologies Powered by Renewable Resources
In this research project, the thermal performance of a low-cost solar box cooker/dryer incorporating booster concentrators with optimum dimensions has been investigated. To achieve this, a double V-trough solar concentrator was designed to concentrate the incident solar irradiance onto the absorber window of the solar box cooker/dryer tray. The introduction of the solar concentrator increased the direct insolation by a factor of 2.1. In order to extend the drying/cooking time further beyond dusk, the effect of the energy storage material (basaltic rocks) was also studied. The solar cooker incorporating the rocks was found to have slightly reduced performance, as shown by the reduction in the first figure of merit F1 from 0.07 Km2W-1 to 0.06 Km2W-1, an effect also predicted by (Verma et al., 2022). Experiments conducted on three system configurations (system with no basaltic rocks; system with 1 Kg of 5.6 mm pellets of basaltic rocks; system with 1 kg of 13 mm pellets of basaltic rocks) revealed that the reduction of performance (F1), due to the use of pellets of basaltic rocks, is independent of pellet size. The project is motivated by the need for low-cost, dual-function, non-intermittent cooker/dryers for use in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Keywords: Solar drying, Solar Cooker, Solar Concentrator, Double V-trough Solar Concentrator, Energy storage Materials

 

Parth Ponkshe

India

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

 

Financing Sustainable Energy in the Ghanaian Energy Market- A Comprehensive Policy Review and Recommendations
The paper keeps sustainable development goal (SDG) 7 – affordable and clean energy – as its focal point, primarily focusing on enabling “affordability” of sustainable and clean energy sources. The goals of this paper are threefold. The first is to provide an overview of Ghana’s energy policy and apparatus. The second is to evaluate and highlight design flaws in the policy support mechanisms and financing constraints that dampen investor confidence and affect the risk profile of RE projects. Moreover, finally, to recommend alternative policies and fiscal mechanisms such as tax-based incentive structures that stimulate a broader base of equity financing participation; financially engineered securitization model of renewable energy assets to offset the inadequacies of the traditional means of project financing in order to create an enabling environment to accelerate the transition to affordable and clean energy.

Key Words: Ghana, SDG 7, renewable Energy, cost of financing, liquidity shortfalls, securitization.

 

     

SDG 8: Decent work and economic growth

Presenters   Title and Absract

Abdul-Wahab Abdul-Hamid
International Islamic University
Ghana

Hassanuddeen B. Abd. Aziz
International Islamic University
Malaysia

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

SDGs, Islamic Banks and Economic Growth Nexus: A Case Study of Malaysia
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the short-run and long-run relationships between Islamic banks’ financing that are aligned with the SDGs and economic growth in Malaysia.
Design/methodology/approach – Utilizing quarterly data set for the duration of 2014 to 2018, this study applies the bound testing approach to cointegration and error correction model to analyse the data based on autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) ARDL approach. 
Findings – The results suggest that Islamic banks’ financing in line with SDG2, SDG3, SDG4 and SDG11 have significant impact on economic growth in the short-run and long-run. However, while SDG2, SDG3 and SDG4 have negative impact on economic growth, SDG11 has a positive impact on economic growth. 
Research limitations/implications – Thoughtful policies to encourage Islamic banks’ financing in line with the SDGs while coping with slow economic growth will be imperative in achieving the SDGs in the long-run. This matters because with just eight years to go until the SDGs deadline of 2030, policymakers and Islamic banking regulators need to act fast by formulating strategies that will shift emphasis on GDP growth to financing the SDGs. 
Originality/value of the paper – This paper is a pinioning effort in the application of the ARDL approach to investigate the nexus between the SDGs, Islamic banks and economic growth. 

Keywords: SDGs, Islamic Banking, Economic Growth, Financing, ARDL, Malaysia

 

Leo Borders
Laura Muro
Paolo Saonda
Saint Louis University
Spain

Azad Abul Kalam
Islamic University of Technology
Bangladesh

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

Financial Development, Governance Systems and Economic Freedom as Determinants of Financial Inclusion
As a response to the United Nations urgent call for action by all countries -developed and developing- to embrace a global partnership for reaching the Sustainable Development Goals, this paper addresses the question of how financial development, governance systems, and economic freedom determine people´s financial inclusion. By using the information from the Financial Access Survey published by the IMF for the period 2004-2020 with a sample of 110 countries. Panel data technique is used in the empirical analysis to deal with the heterogeneity problems. Our results confirm low levels of financial inclusion in the countries’ sample and shed light on the benefits of having more developed financial and governance systems, as well as more countries’ economic freedom. We provide several policy implications from our findings.

Keywords: sustainable development goals, financial inclusion, financial development, governance systems, economic freedom.

 

George Lwanda

Gambia

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    Development Cannot Do Us Apart: Why SDG Interconnections Matter in Reducing Youth Unemployment

Youth unemployment is a major hindrance to Africa's achievement of the 2030 Agenda's aim of sustainable development (Africa Capacity Building Foundation 2017; The World Bank 2009; Wallace 2019; Zimmerman et al. 2013). According to the International Labour Organization, Africa has one of the highest proportions of unemployed youth globally. While between 10 and 12 million young people enter the labour force on the continent each year, only 3 million jobs are created (Africa Development Bank Group 2015). As a result, almost 80% of African teenagers entering the labour field experience long-term unemployment.

Prolonged unemployment causes up to half of the continent's unemployed youth to give up looking for work, undermining social cohesiveness (World Bank 2014; Honwana 2014; Mueller, Rosenbach, and Thurlow 2019; Resnick 2019). Youth who have given up looking for work are called discouraged or inactive youth in labour accounting. They are young men and women who, despite their youth, have given up on looking for work after long periods of unemployment (Africa Development Bank Group 2015; Honwana 2014; Resnick 2019; World Bank 2014).

This study identifies the SDGs most closely linked with reducing youth unemployment (SDG8) in the 34 African countries shown in Figure 1. It uses data from the 2018 Afrobarometer Round 7 survey to examine the prevalent socio-economic circumstances of youth who have given up looking for work.

Keywords: Youth unemployment, SDG, discouraged youth, Africa, gender equality

 

Md. Anisur Rahman
Daulatpur College
Bangladesh

 

Published Paper

PRERECORDED

    Higher Education and Human Capital Development

Science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge, following a systematic methodology. This methodology includes observation, measurement and evidence to gain knowledge. Sustainability means meeting our own needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainability is broadly used to indicate programs, initiatives and actions aimed at the preservation of a particular resource. It actually refers to four distinct areas: human, social, economic and environmental are the four pillars of sustainability. Higher education also includes teacher-training schools, colleges, universities and institutes of technology after passing secondary school certificate courses. Innovation is the key feature of sustainability. Sustainability can drive innovation by introducing new design constraints that shape how key resources like, energy, carbon, water, materials and waste are used in products and processes. Sustainable innovation is a rational and collaborative way to maintain socio economic values for present and future generations. A key role of higher education institutions is to drive innovation, with the aim of finding solutions to global challenges in areas that matter to socio economic development. The role of higher education for sustainable development involves changing the means and processes of knowledge production and the way in which students are trained, making students more socially responsible, critical and sensitive towards sustainability. This paper discussed the present global economic growth, how the economic growth can be sustainable by digitalization and the 4th industrial revolution, post covid19 economy and highly skilled workforce demand for innovative solutions in the workplace, higher educational institutions can build the students high skilled for present global job market.
This paper is based on observational methodology as a mixed research major in qualitative and minor quantitative. During the research period it was observed the qualitative development in ICT education each year in Bangladesh in SSC level. The observation was done upon (10+2) level students from different institutions after their SSC level.
In the developing countries of the world there is already a digital divide. Both developed and developing countries require more skilled workforce upon digital technologies for a faster recovery of the global economic losses. There needs global cooperation to reduce the obstacles for the ICT skill development at higher educational institutions. The higher educational institutions can build a research cloud for new innovative solutions from the academic institutions for SDGs. A neural network can be established for local and global solutions by making decisions upon data and information using artificial intelligence algorithms. There needs to be rational financing for research and innovation at the institutions for the outcome of global sustainability.

Key Words: Education, Sustainability, 4IR, Innovation & Skill.

 

Anu Rao
Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur

Balram Rao
Alliance University

Kunal Rao
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

India

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    Decent Work and Wellbeing in Modern World of Work: Empirical Evidence from Delhi NCR Region

The Covid-19 pandemic has effectively forced the world into an economic meltdown. Interestingly, in midst of the first corona wave, the Indian Parliament passed three labour codes-the industrial code, the code on social security, and the code on occupational safety, health, and working conditions. In this paper, we examine the impact of the consolidation exercise of these labour codes in the construction industry. We attempt to analyze how these codes could affect the lives and rights of workers in the construction industry.
We focus on analyzing the existing conditions of work, safety regulations, and other welfare measures that could have improved the wellbeing of the workers during a pandemic. Using descriptive analytics, the analysis is derived from the primary data collected at the sampled large construction worksites of both public and private MNCs spread across the Delhi National Capital Region. The findings describe that a more flexible cum precarious hiring process has weakened the compliance on conditions of work, health, safety, and other welfare measures. Further, de-facto reinforcing the traditional non- standard norms of labour mobilization has not only trapped the workers in neo-bondage kind of labour relations, but the spread of Covid-19 pandemic and inadequate social protection have also affected the safety at work and wellbeing of most of the workers. This is in complete contradiction to both what most of the organizations and governments committed to United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and what neoliberal reforms often claim of ‘free the agency of labour’.

Keyword: Covid-19, Work, Wellbeing, Social Protection, SDGs, Construction Industry.

 

       

SDG 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

Presenters   Title and Absract

Mary Foss
Weber State University

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    Promoting Sustainable Development Goals Through Project-Based Learning: A Case Study of the Concept Center

The field of engineering is well-suited to solve many of the United Nations 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).  It is the responsibility of institutions of higher learning to prepare engineering students to not only understand their role in achieving these goals but to be equipped with the skills, knowledge, and expertise to make incremental changes and advancements in their field that support sustainable development.  One such way to do so is through experience in project-based learning (PBL).  The Concept Center at Weber State University is modeled after PBL and functions to pair students with sponsored projects.  This paper discusses the application of PBL in the Concept Center to achieve a double mission of being an active community member by connecting academia with industry and community members and providing opportunities for students to gain needed skills in problem solving and project engineering and mentorship.  A summary of past projects completed at the Concept Center by student interns is presented that demonstrate the ability of the PBL Center to advance goals related to good health and wellbeing (SDG3), quality education (SDG4), gender equality (SDG5), affordable and clean energy (SDG7), and industry, innovation, and infrastructure (SDG9). 

Key words: engineering education, project-based learned, United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, quality education, gender equality, affordable and clean energy, industry, innovation, and infrastructure

 

Estíbaliz García
Fundación Novia Salcedo
Spain

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    La Necesidad de un Convenio Internacional para Fortalecer Alianzas en la Mitigacion de los Desechos Espaciales

En un escenario en el que los lanzamientos espaciales son cada vez más frecuentes, los desechos espaciales tienden a acumularse. Se podría afirmar que una problemática similar a la del medioambiente terrestre se ha visto trasladada al ámbito espacial. Tomando en consideración que se halla fuera de discusión la posibilidad de disminuir o restringir la utilización y explotación del espacio ultraterrestre por los Estados, inevitablemente el foco central de interés para hacer frente a la problemática internacional aquí descrita son los propios desechos espaciales, ya que el número de los mismos no dejará de ascender en el tiempo. En los últimos años se ha desarrollado una mayor conciencia de la gravedad del problema, reconociendo los Estados la importancia de mantener un acceso sostenible al espacio ultraterrestre para las futuras generaciones. Desde el punto de vista jurídico dicho reconocimiento se ha venido reflejando en  la elaboración de recomendaciones para mitigar la cantidad de desechos espaciales. No obstante, sin restar importancia a este logro en el campo, dichas recomendaciones no son vinculantes para los Estados, por lo que, tampoco se les puede invocar responsabilidad por inobservancia de las mismas. Teniendo en cuenta el incremento continuado año tras año en la cantidad de desechos en órbita, cabe afirmar que el problema persiste y se necesitan medidas adicionales. Por ello, la solución jurídica que se propone en el presente trabajo sería la elaboración de una convención internacional. Dicha medida otorgaría amplios beneficios, siendo el primordial el cumplimiento simultáneo de varios de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) de la Agenda 2030. Ahora más que nunca es necesaria una sólida cooperación internacional centrada en la preservación del medioambiente espacial dada la trascendencia de la basura espacial como problema ambiental inminente y los riesgos que plantea. 

Palabras clave: Desechos espaciales, Basura espacial, Espacio ultraterrestre, Derecho Internacional del Espacio, Corpus Iuris Spatialis, Protección internacional del medioambiente.

 

Michael Ekonde Sone
Denis Tcheukam Toko
Nestor Tsamo
University of Buea
Cameroon

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

Partnering to Maximize the Impact of Technological Innovation in Postharvest Processes in Rural Areas
Postharvest losses are high in the rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa due to poor road infrastructure and lack of appropriate technologies. This paper reports the use of appropriate technologies to curb poverty and hunger in the rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa due to poor postharvest processes by farmers and how to explore appropriate partnerships to enhance the impacts of the technological innovation. The technologies developed is a drone for data gathering and a new multi-crop drying machine composed of a drying chamber with one end having a heat collector essentially a black body and the other end suction fans to enable circulation of hot dry air. The use of the machine in postharvest processes prevents rapid degradation of farm produce before delivery to urban markets due to poor road infrastructure. The area of implementation of the technological innovation is the kupe-manegouba division in Cameroon due to its enclaved nature with less than 10 kilometres of tarred road. Statistics from the divisional delegation of agriculture show that postharvest losses for plantains is 35%. This percentage could be higher if not of traders who exploit farmers by buying their produce at giving away prices of 200FCFA per bunch to sell later at 5000FCFA. Such practice will enhance poverty and hunger for the local farmers. With the implementation of the technologies and local partnerships, the postharvest losses were reduced to 28.6% and it is envisaged that, with broad-based partnerships, the postharvest losses could be further reduced to less than 5% by 2030.

Keywords: postharvest; multi-crop machine; drone; innovation; partnership; farmers.

 

       

SDG 10: Reduced inequality

Presenters   Title and Absract

Cyprian Amutabi
University of Nairobi
Kenya

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

Do Education Level and Employment Status Matter for Financial Inclusion? Evidence from Kenya
The United Nations Capital Development Fund (UNCDF) identifies financial inclusion as a major promoter of various Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and can be used as an instrument in eradicating poverty and gearing inclusive economic growth. This is also well anchored under Goal Number 10 of the SDGs. Despite this consensus, the level of financial inclusivity in Kenya remains low. Using the 2021 National FinAccess data, this study sought to assess whether the education level and employment status of individuals mattered for financial inclusion in Kenya. Three measurements of financial inclusion were adopted namely, usage, access, and barriers. A multidimensional index of financial inclusion was constructed using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) approach with the Human Opportunity Index (HOI) being used to measure the inequality of opportunity in financial inclusion. Subsequently, the Shapley decomposition technique was employed to understand the contribution of education and employment to the percentage of inequality of opportunity. The OLS regression results revealed that the two factors were indeed critical and significantly increased financial inclusion in Kenya. Further, the Shapley decomposition technique revealed that the education level vis-a-vis the employment status of an individual explained the highest proportion of financial inclusion across the three models. Moreover, unlike in the usage models where the coverage rate and the HOI were lower, the access models depicted an increased pattern in the access to financial products. To increase financial inclusion in Kenya, this study recommended that financial institutions step up their efforts in bridging the financial information asymmetry gap. This can be realized through financial literacy which helps broaden people’s awareness of the access, usage, and barriers to financial products. Additionally, there is a need for both the government and private sector players to create more employment opportunities as this is requisite in providing steady income streams that consequently, incentivize account ownership for transaction purposes.
JEL Classification: D14, G20, G21

Keywords: Financial inclusion, Education, Employment, HOI, Shapley decomposition, Kenya.

 

Tomas Atarama
Maria Delfino
Universidad de Piura
Peru

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

Narrativa Transmedia Corporativa: Un Modelo Para Promover el Compromiso por los Objectivos de Desarrollo Sostenible de la Agenda 2030
En el actual ecosistema mediático, las organizaciones tienen el reto de construir nuevas estrategias para conectar con los diferentes públicos de interés. En este contexto, la narrativa transmedia es aplicada en la comunicación corporativa para impulsar una mejora en la sociedad, ya que permite alcanzar a las audiencias, sensibilizarlas y motivarlas a sumarse al proceso de cambio. La presente investigación busca conocer cómo el uso de la narrativa transmedia corporativa propició el aumento del nivel de la vinculación emocional de la audiencia a favor de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) propuestos en la Agenda 2030 para generar el cambio social. Para ello, se ha tomado como objeto de estudio tres campañas de éxito de los últimos años: #YoSoyYVoyA - LifeStreams (2019) de la Fundación Peruana contra el Cáncer, Banco igualitario (2020) de Scotiabank y La regla no es un tema, la violencia sí (2020) de LadySoft. A partir de la metodología de análisis de caso, donde se estudió los mensajes, el ecosistema de difusión de los contenidos y las dinámicas de participación de la audiencia, se demuestra que el éxito de las campañas estudiadas se debe a una correcta articulación de una serie de herramientas para la generación del compromiso por el cambio social basadas en las cuatro claves de la narrativa transmedia: macrohistoria, puntos de contacto, audiencia activa y mundo transmedial.

PALABRAS CLAVES: Narrativa transmedia, comunicación corporativa, compromiso, Agenda 2030 y cambio social.

 

Ayuk Justine Eta
Helen Linong-Fontebo
Emmanuel Yenshu
University of Buea
Cameroon

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

Addressing the Growing Gender Inequalities in New Conflict Areas in Africa: The Case of Cameroon and Nigeria
New conflicts in the post-Cold War era destabilize and lead to new inequalities that significantly restructure African societies. These are either low intensity conflicts or short-lived civil wars with political motives proposed by radical Islam or secessionist movements (violent or peaceful). African societies are evolving towards a situation where gender inequalities are narrowing or gaps bridged for some segments in some countries, there is regression in achievements, stagnation in relation to gender equality and deterioration of conditions in conflict areas. This requires concerted efforts through partnerships at national and international level involving governments, non-governmental agencies and private organizations with the capacity to significantly influence the course of action. This paper sets out to study the impact of conflicts on the rights and status of women in two conflict areas in Africa with limited reference to some field research. The paper highlights the perverse effects of conflicts as they dislocate societies putting a halt to overall development, overturn values and result in losses for agency and value for women and girls. The gains in improvement in gender relations or a narrowing of gender gaps are eroded putting into question prospects of achieving development goals related to gender equality (Goal 5) and equality in general (Goal 10). The call is for more vigorous action not only to put an end to peace as a condition for development but to focus on the problems that arise out of conflict zones, notable amongst which are gender inequalities. 

Key words: gender, conflict, violence, vulnerability, inequality, development, partnership.

 

     

SDG 11: Sustainable cities and communities

Presenters   Title and Absract

Ndoumbe Richard Alain
Ministry of Decentralisation
Cameroon

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    Le Processus de Decentralisation au Cameroun: Avancées, Pesanteurs et Perspectives

The main orientation of the National Development Strategy 2020-2030 (SND30) in terms of decentralization and local development in Cameroon is to accelerate and deepen the decentralization process and strengthen local governance to make Decentralized Territorial Communities (CTD), poles of growth and development at regional and local levels. All things that promote the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in favor of grassroots populations through the improvement of their living conditions. However, despite the transfer of powers and resources to the Communes and Regions by the State, it is clear that poverty persists, particularly in rural areas. The objective of this work therefore aims to analyze the challenges facing the process of decentralization and local development in Cameroon, and suggests some ways to improve it.

Keywords : Cameroon, decentralization, constraints and perspectives.

 

Samuel Ayonghe
Livinus Mchini
Mabel Wantim
University of Buea
Cameroon

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    Monitoring and Predicting Future Eruptions of Mount Cameroon: A Requirement for Ensuring Sustainable Development in Communities within the Area (SDG 11, SDG 7)

Over 500,000 people inhabit the flanks of Mount Cameroon (MC) compose of 2 cities, 3 towns and 63 villages. MC is one of the most active volcanoes in Africa. Hazards from its 1999 eruption (lava flows, earthquakes and volcanic ash) caused significant environmental and infrastructural damage and affected the wellbeing of this community. To attain SDG 11 (Targets11.5 and Indicator 11.B.2), there is an urgent need to monitor hazards from this volcano. This entails building and maintaining partnerships towards the implementation of SDG 17 (Targets 17.3, 17 6 & 17.9). This study examines the extent to which recent North-South and South-South partnerships, through a USAID PERIPERI-U and a Swedish (SIDA) LIRA2030 grants have contributed towards the partial attainment of these goals, such as, in the development of the first Earthquake Building Code and Building Regulations in the area, and the construction and partial equipping of a Volcano Monitoring Laboratory. Funding from these partnerships has also been used for capacity building of students; research training of staff in Belgium, Algeria, and in the USA; organisation of workshops and focused group discussions on communities’ perceptions of the eruptions of this mountain, how the hazards affect development in the area, and the coping strategies of the communities during eruptions. It is hoped that more partnerships will be established and used to provide clear messages for policy makers and stakeholders and equally ensure confidence building on the communities, aimed at ensuring the implementation of these Goals within this area and beyond by 2030. 

KEYWORDS: Mount Cameroon, volcano monitoring, perception, training, building code, partnership

 

Clifton Farnsworth
Jacob Neil
Andrew South
Brigham Young University

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    Exploring the Role of Ethics and Sustainability in the Decision Making of Engineering and Construction Professionals: Toward Developing Sustainable Cities and Communities

The built environment is the backbone of sustainable cities and human settlements.  Thus, engineering and construction (EC) professionals have a direct impact on achieving goal 11 of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) through designing, building, and operating sustainable cities and communities.  However, the built environment is also heavily connected to many of the other SDGs. This research reports the exploration of EC professionals’ approaches to sustainable development, and the extent to which ethics and aspects of sustainability motivate their decision making.  Semi-structured interviews with a range of EC professionals demonstrate how various decisions are professionally evaluated as touching each of the ‘three pillars of sustainability’ (economic, social, and environmental).  Economic motivations are embedded in virtually all decision making, while social and environmental aspects of sustainability are more varied in their implementation. Social aspects comprise a broad array of motivating factors, while environmental aspects are heavily influenced by regulation.  Most surprising is the extent to which some EC professionals decouple ethics from sustainability-related decisions, placing responsibility fully upon the shoulders of their clients to make sustainable decisions and act appropriately. The ASCE statement on sustainability suggests that engineers should “do the right project” (2021b).  However, practice seems to indicate that often EC professionals inform their clients about what may be “right,” but take no responsibility to insist on any sustainable action beyond regulatory minimums.  EC professionals have an opportunity to take greater leadership roles in directly and indirectly supporting the SDGs via professional work in the built environment.

KEYWORDS:  Ethics, Sustainability, Decision Making, Civil Engineering, Construction

 

Trinidad Fernandez
Fraunhofer IAO
Germany

Stella Schroeder
University of Piura
Peru

 

Published Paper

PRERECORDED

   

The World Towards the Future. Global Initiative for Healthy Cities. Piura, Peru
Today, more than half of the world's population live in urban areas. To achieve sustainable and healthy development, it is essential to rethink the way cities are built and organized. Health means much more than the physical situation of a person or a community or the health care system; A healthy city is based on a commitment to improve the living conditions of all its inhabitants. However, in practice, many of them continue to be planned and designed without considering its citizens’ needs and scales of well-being. This research is based on the work of the MGI Morgenstadt Global Smart Cities Initiative in Piura, an intermediate city in Peru that is strongly affected by the consequences of climate change. Through a City Lab, the initiative seeks to generate replicable and viable solutions and strategies using advanced technologies and an in-depth analysis of local development demand. Based on a selection of indicators and their impact factors, comparative data is used to evaluate Piura's performance holistically, supporting the concept of a healthy city and the local action needed to comply with the SDGs and the New Urban Agenda. The analyzed data and its results help to define urban projects at the local level that aim to address the challenges identified in the city and building on the achievement of a long-term vision development. The proposed solutions are based on aspects of health in its different dimensions, combining with opportunities for social and economic innovation that support sustainable urban development.

Keywords: healthy city, wellbeing, City Lab, sustainable development, Piura

 

Matt Jensen
Brett Stone
Utah Valley University

John Salmon
Brigham Young University

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

Improving Air Quality by Reducing Aircraft Fuel Use and Emissions with Semi-Autonomous Electric Tugs
In order to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages even as the demand for global air travel grows, reducing emissions from aircraft is increasingly important. Previous attempts to minimize the amount of time aircraft engines are turned on before take-off are examined and analyzed. The proposal to use electrically powered, semi-autonomous tugs to ferry aircraft on the ground and its ability to produce a significant reduction in fuel use and thus emissions is evaluated. Analysis is performed using the Federal Aviation Administration’s Aviation Environmental Design Tool analysis software to simulate the effects implementation would have at the busiest airport in the United States (Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport). A design for such a tug and control and coordination system is proposed and described. It is shown that implementation of such a system would result in significant reductions in fuel use and emissions. Areas of future research are outlined.

Keywords: Air quality, Emissions, Electric vehicles, Autonomous, Fuel use, Aircraft, Airliner

 

       

SDG 12: Responsible consumption and production

Presenters   Title and Absract

Michael Bown
Clifton Farnsworth
Andrew South
Robert Sowby
Brigham Young University

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    An Exploration of How Large Corporations Use Sustainable Development Goals and Standardized Reporting Structures Within their Sustainability Strategies

The purpose of the paper is to determine which of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are being used by the largest US corporations, and to assess the quality of this use. Similarly, we determine which of the most common standardized reporting structures these corporations use. The assessments are done using the websites and annual reports of the top 25 Fortune 100 companies. There are 17 SDGs and four widely used standardized sustainability reporting structures: Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB), Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures (TCFD), and Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP). Along with these reporting structures, we look at which companies subscribe to the two programs UN Global Compact (UNGC) and the Science-Based Targets Initiative (SBTi). All 17 SDGs are mentioned by at least two companies, and by up to 14 companies for the most popular SDG. Three of the top four companies in terms of SDG usage are in the “consumer discretionary” category. Beyond mere mention of SDGs, 52% of the companies show good evidence of their adoption of the SDGs. The six reporting structures and programs are well represented among the companies, with eight companies using all six, and five more using five of them. The paper contributes to the body of knowledge by showing in structured form to what extent the SDGs have meaningfully penetrated the largest US corporations, and to what degree these corporations are using standardized reporting structures for communicating sustainability information to their stakeholders.

Keywords: UN SDG; UN Global Compact; Sustainable Development Goals; Science-Based Targets Initiative; Fortune 100; Corporate Websites

 

Hilary Ngouabo Dassi
International Relations Institute of Cameroon
Cameroon

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    Logiques Neopatrimonaiales et de Gouvernance par la Ruse Dans la Gestion Durable des Forets au Cameroun

The purpose of the paper is to determine which of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are being used by the largest US corporations, and to assess the quality of this use. Similarly, we determine which of the most common standardized reporting structures these corporations use. The assessments are done using the websites and annual reports of the top 25 Fortune 100 companies. There are 17 SDGs and four widely used standardized sustainability reporting structures: Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB), Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures (TCFD), and Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP). Along with these reporting structures, we look at which companies subscribe to the two programs UN Global Compact (UNGC) and the Science-Based Targets Initiative (SBTi). All 17 SDGs are mentioned by at least two companies, and by up to 14 companies for the most popular SDG. Three of the top four companies in terms of SDG usage are in the “consumer discretionary” category. Beyond mere mention of SDGs, 52% of the companies show good evidence of their adoption of the SDGs. The six reporting structures and programs are well represented among the companies, with eight companies using all six, and five more using five of them. The paper contributes to the body of knowledge by showing in structured form to what extent the SDGs have meaningfully penetrated the largest US corporations, and to what degree these corporations are using standardized reporting structures for communicating sustainability information to their stakeholders.

Keywords: UN SDG; UN Global Compact; Sustainable Development Goals; Science-Based Targets Initiative; Fortune 100; Corporate Websites

 

Angie Higuchi
Schwalb Maria Matilde
Roger Merino
Universidad del Pacifico
Peru

Franklin Ibáñez
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos
Peru

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    International Quality Pressures and Banned Pesticides in Peruvian Quinoa

Purpose: The objective of this article is twofold: 1) evaluate the relationship between international pressures and the national prioritization of quinoa as a key export commodity, and the consequent diminishing of cultivation and crops quality, with health and ecological risks that ends affecting the Peruvian national population, and 2) analyze if internationally banned pesticides are present in the quinoa that Peruvian are consuming. 
Design/methodology/approach: The first objective was achieved by data analysis of Peruvian quinoa exports and production levels. To reach the second objective, the study relied on a lab trial over four brands of packed quinoa purchased in supermarkets from metropolitan Lima on April 2020, January and November 2021 (during and after state authorities prohibited the use of Methamidophos).
Findings: The study finds a strong correlation between the increase of the international demand for quinoa and the decrease of the quality of land-use and the products associated to the intensive use of pesticides. The research also found that even if companies stopped using Methamidophos after the ban, they used other toxic pesticides prohibited internationally, risking the food security of Peruvian consumers. 
Originality/value of the paper: To our best of knowledge, this is the first study that analyze the effect of the use of banned pesticides on Peruvian quinoa through the pressures to meet the international demand.  

Keywords: Quinoa, Peru, pesticides, food safety, environment, metamidophos

       
       

SDG 13: Climate action

Presenters   Title and Absract

Basil Ewane
Aminkeng Lucienne Fuanyi
Tata Emmanuel Sunjo
University of Buea
Cameroon

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

Problems of Climate Change-Related Hazards in African Coastal Communities
Climate change continues to be a key development concern, being one of the SDGs (Goal 13) which aims at mitigating and adapting to climate change adversities. While there are increasing efforts in reducing development risks and vulnerabilities orchestrated by climate change in many continents, African coastal communities continue to experience complex hazard risks.This study uses a mixed methods appraoch with data from the International Emergency Database to assess climate change-related hazards on the continent. Analysis points to the fact that the communities are exposed to hazard risks that have been intensfied by climate change manifested in global warming and its attendant consequences as witnessed in the rise in sea levels (resulting in the inundation of coasts and sometimes whole islands) and climate vagaries (changes in rainfall patterns, El Nino effect, and extreme weather events) which are further compounded by unplanned urbanisation and environmental degradation. While global collaboration targets climate change from a macro level as witnessed in summits that focus specifically on gas emissions and global warming, local level effects especially in African coastal communities are often overlooked. The increasing frequencies of these hazards calls for the need to collaborate at the global, national and local levels in accelerating and intensifying mitigation and adaptation measures that go down to coastal communities. Improving knowledge on early warning mechanisms based on consistent data records and improved monitoring technologies of weather and climatic phenomena, as well as robust coastal stabilisation programmes are essential in this respect.

Key Words: climate change, hazards, coastal communities,adaptation, mitigation, partnerships.

 

Lara Gil
Paraskevi Karpos
Sabrina Reinbacher

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    Climate Change and Environmental Migration Case Studies that Indicate Potential Future Movements Due to Climate Events: Austria, Greece, Spain and the United States

Climate changes are becoming more and more noticable. The number and frequency of extreme climate events such as fires, floods, storms or earthquakes are rising. Many of them are related to the increase in the average global temperature. While direct ecological effects seem to be obvious, the impact on cultural, economic, and social patterns must also be considered. Based on Sustainable Development Goal 13 (SDG 13) “Climate Action” this paper therefore investigates the relationship between climate phenomena and migration. It explains the concept of climate migration and displacement. It takes a look at four Northern Countries (Austria, Greece, Spain, United States) and analyzes climate events that happened in 2021, and its effect on migration as well as their economic, social, and cultural ramifications and future trends. As data refers to events of 2021 statistics may not have recorded adequate migration patterns. Still, there is a trend towards internal and short-term migration visible. Taking a deeper look at commonalities among these countries, the paper emphasizes the comprehensive nature of this phenomenon and shows the intertwined nature of SDGs. The paper therefore tries to raise awareness on the topic of climate migration and the increasing urgency to take actions and to build future adaptation strategies.

Keywords: Climate Migration, Environmental Migration, Climate Action, Climate Change, Climate Events, Sustainable Development Goals

 

Nakita Bruno Green
Maharishi International University
Commonwealth of Dominica

 

Published Paper

PRERECORDED

   

A Grounded Theory Study Exploring Why and How the UNEP Young Champions of the Earth Create Sustainable Innovations for a Flourishing Planet
In recent years there has been increased dialogue on the urgency of grand challenges and the role of sustainable innovations in facilitating sustainable development and creating a flourishing world. Individuals are central to this phenomenon in that they provide the ideas and actions which build innovations that alleviate social challenges, facilitate environmental restoration, and drive a new model of economic prosperity. Nonetheless, many scholars agree that the sustainable innovation and sustainable development literature are limited by a restricted epistemology that lacks a theoretical understanding of why and how individuals pioneer sustainable development as well as a multilevel approach to sustainable innovation. A more refined understanding of this phenomenon at the individual and multi-level can offer the insights necessary for mankind to transcend existing grand challenges.
This paper presents a grounded theory study on why and how the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) Young Champions of the Earth (YCE) award winners create innovations for a flourishing planet. The UNEP YCE have successfully tackled several of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) globally. The data revealed that the YCE award winners experienced grand challenges at the macro-level which triggered micro-level feelings, emotion, and cognition that then drove them to create synergy with others at the mesa level, leverage their full potential, and innovate responsibly for social and environmental evolution. These findings were used to construct a 4 E Process model where sustainable innovations are created through four processes: Entangling, Enlightening, Enacting, and Evolving. These findings enrich the academic literature in several ways.

Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals, Sustainable Innovation, Grand Challenges, Flourishing

 

Hannah Moss
Lehigh University

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    Mindsets and Air Pollution in a Dynamic Urban Environment: How Attitudes and Behaviors May Aggravate Public Health Outcomes in Almaty, Kazakhstan

Using an original public opinion survey we study attitudes and behaviors toward air pollution in Almaty, Kazakhstan, a growing modern city with extremely high concentration of air pollutants. Utilizing the Health Belief Model (HBM) framework previously used to understand an individual's health decision-making, we evaluate levels of citizens’ awareness of the poor air quality, their perception of risk and harm it poses to health, and their willingness to devote time and resources to reduce their air pollution exposure. The issue of air quality in Almaty–Kazakhstan’s most populous and wealthiest city– has received much attention in recent years, but little research has been done to thoroughly examine public attitudes, which ultimately would drive any solutions to the problem. Our study finds that although citizens are aware of the gravity and general harms of Almaty’s air pollution, they significantly underestimate their personal risks and health consequences. The survey also shows citizens are unwilling to think of air pollution as their own personal health problem and often engage in daily routines that exacerbate their exposure to pollution. We conclude that shifting public discourse from the collective/government to the individual/community problem domain will have a beneficial effect on daily practices which may lead to reduction of exposure and improvements in public health outcomes. Such attitudinal and behavioral changes are necessary first steps to promote environmental consciousness and effective pollution reduction programs. 

Keywords: HBM, air pollution, environment, public opinion, public health, Kazakhstan, Almaty

 

Claudia García Zaragoza
Pompeu Fabra University
Spain

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    The Regressive Effect of Climate Change on Social Inequalities: Analysis and Policy Recommendations

Climate change and within country inequalities (or social inequalities) have traditionally been studied independently. This paper aims to put two of the most pressing global challenge of contemporary times in parallel and reflect on their relationship. Climate change impact tends to be regressive, falling more heavily on most marginalized and stigmatized groups in society, thus exacerbating existing inequalities. Besides, it includes an analysis of three ways through which climate hazards impact more vulnerable groups: greater exposure, higher susceptibility to damages, and less ability to cope and recover. These three channels trap climate change and social inequalities in a vicious cycle difficult to overcome. Empirical evidence on recent climate hazards is employed to support theoretical assumptions. The paper concludes with policy recommendations to break the vicious cycle and build resilience to climate hazards and ultimately reduce social inequalities. The pack of policies suggested goes from localized tailored actions to global engagement and multi-stakeholder initiatives.

Keywords: Social inequalities, within country inequalities, climate hazards, resilience

 



     
       
       

SDG 14: Life below water

Presenters   Title and Absract

Katelyn Hickman
Utah Valley University

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    The Integral Role of the Coastal Microbiome in Mangrove Conservation

Mangroves are intertidal forests that bridge the gap between terrestrial and marine environments. They live at the edge of their tolerance in habitats rife with abiotic stressors such as fluctuations in salinity and temperature, yet mangroves are among the most productive ecosystems in the world. They are also among the most vulnerable to climate change and anthropogenic degradation, and are in steep decline globally. Providing important services economically, ecologically and environmentally, mangroves support a plethora of human activities, stabilizing coastlines, supporting marine food webs, sequestering vast amounts of carbon, cycling nutrients, trapping sediment and filtering water. This research examines the existing literature on the microbiome, biochemistry, ecological role, and conservation initiatives surrounding mangroves. My aim is the synthesis of a holistic approach to improving transplantation practices, supporting the success of mangrove reforestation. Mangrove reforestation initiatives are adapting priorities to include conservation and biodiversity, but success rates and longevity of transplants remain low. Inoculation of mangrove seedlings raised in nurseries, away from their natural habitats, shows promise in bolstering the success rates of seedling transplantation. Studies have correlated bacterial and fungal inoculants with increased biomass, increased resistance to stressors, increased root stability, increased plant productivity and reduced uptake of phytotoxic metals. These increases in performance are not attributed to a single microbial species, but rather a combination of bacterial and fungal inoculants. The interactions of these species is not yet well-understood but may hold pertinent insight for the successful reforestation of mangroves, and the rehabilitation of coastal ecosystems across the globe. 

Keywords
Mangrove, microbiome, nutrient cycling, reforestation, mangrove management, sustainable development goals

 

       

SDG 15: Life on land

Presenters   Title and Absract
     
       
       
       

SDG 16: Peace, justice and strong institutions

Presenters   Title and Absract

Atangcho Akonumbo
Albert Mbiatem
Emile Sunjo
University of Buea
Cameroon

 

Published Paper

PRERECORDED

 

Partnering to Reduce Inequalities, Attain Peace, Justice and Build Strong Institutions in Cameroon
This study examines the role of Sustainable Development Goal 17 on partnerships in reducing inequalities, building strong institutions and attaining peace and Justice in Cameroon. Partnerships have been increasingly considered to be crucial in implementing Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). 19 targets have been identified by the United Nations (UN) on goal 17. This study essentially relies on target 17.17 meant to encourage effective partnerships. Meeting this target can potentially contribute to reducing inequalities in particular, building strong institutions and attaining peace and justice in Cameroon. Local, regional and international partnerships have been put in place to address questions of inequality, peace and justice and building strong institutions found respectively under goals 10 and 16. Cameroon, seven years into the SDGs agenda, is yet to show a clear path to the realization of goals 10 and 16.  These challenges can be attributed to the limited success in putting in place effective partnerships envisaged by target 17.17 of Goal 17.  Peace, security and justice in particular have experienced significant challenges in recent years and inequalities have been on a rise. Using a qualitative case study research design, this study sought to examine the relevance of partnerships in the attainment of SDGs 10 and 16; understand the effectiveness/ineffectiveness of partnerships on the achievement of the Goals based; and explore the best strategies for the implementation of partnerships that may contribute to the attainment of SDGs 10 and 16 in Cameroon. It reveals that much still needs to be done for goals 10 and 16 to be satisfactorily realized in Cameroon. It also shows that partnerships are indispensable for the attainment of goals 10 and 16 in Cameroon and that to be effective, they must involve the active participation of beneficiaries. Finally, the study demonstrates that an advance in one of the three goals contributes to progress in the others.

Key Words: Partnerships, Sustainable Development Goals, Inequalities, Peace, Justice, Institutions

 

Dr. Maayan Amir
Ben Gurion University
Israel

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

  Authorizing the Use of Visual Force: Strategic Analysis and Examination of Incriminating Visual Images Presented at the United Nations Security Council

With its aegis of maintaining international peace and its power to authorize the use of force on a global scale, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) also provides an arena in which state representatives advocate for various military measures by exhibiting photographic material. Despite the fact that such material has been introduced for these purposes at the UNSC since its inception, systematic research into the principal visual codes and values that legally define the types of photographic material presented at the UNSC remains absent. This paper aims to fill the gap by analyzing the history of visual presentations, focusing on the strategy of incriminating states or non-state fighting frictions by weaponizing photographs submitted as evidence of atrocious international law infringement to justify military operations, or in blatant support of war efforts. Combing through the timeline of visual presentations in the history of the Council, our point of departure is the Syrian Civil War (2011–ongoing) to draw comparisons with two other cases: one in 1947, when the Dutch government submitted photographs as evidence against the Indonesian Republic troops; and another in 1961, whereby the Portuguese government presented photographs to incriminate the national movement's fighters in Angola. In these cases, the modus operandi reveals itself to be an imperial tool at the service of colonial purposes. The article’s goal is to draw attention to the frequent abuses of imagery presented at the UNSC, and to shed light on the recurring pattern of misusing visuals for the purposes of justifying war.

Keywords:
Visual Evidence, Visual Lawfare; United Nations Security Council; Syrian Civil War; Indonesian National Revolution; Angolan War of Independence

 

Dr. Biswajit Bandyopadhyay

India

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

  Building Strong Anti-Corruption Institutions for Sustainable Development: Enhancing Peace, Justice and Public Trust in Public Policy Process
Building accountable, transparent, effective and inclusive institutions is a great challenge both in developed and developing countries resulting to increase conflict, corruption, insecurity and week institutions thereby limited access to justice. Public trust is important for successful policy-making process. The implementation of governmental policies and programmes depends upon the behavioural responses from the citizens. The United Nations has published 17 Sustainable Development Goals and framed universal agenda not to leave behind. The SDG 16 clearly mentioned to decrease corruption and bribery substantially, building strong and peaceful institutions and provide equal access to justice among citizens. Despite corruption control strategies for prevention of corruption as one of the most important factors causing obstacles to good governance and declining the level of trust towards public institutions including anti-corruption agencies. At this instance, the research questions are: 
i) How far anti-corruption institutions are performing their functions efficiently and effectively for implementation of ‘Zero Tolerance Policy’ as announced by the Government of India and State Governments with the expectations of general citizens? 
ii) What are the major challenges faced by anti-corruption organizations to control corruption and building effective, transparent and inclusive anti-corruption governance in Sustainable Development Framework? 
The study analyzes how anti-corruption institutions accomplish goals for trust, peace and access to justice among citizens and employees based on sample survey from citizens and police officials posted in anti-corruption agencies. The study has analyzed present status of intervention in functioning of anti-corruption institutions and developed models to strengthen anti-corruption institutions in policy-making process for combating corruption.
 
Keywords: Anti-Corruption Institutions, Good Governance, Inequality, Public Policy, Public Trust, Sustainable Development
 

Natasha Byrd
Utah Valley University

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

  Issues in Refugee Adaptation After Resettlement

Refugees are individuals who have been displaced forcefully or are fleeing war and conflict in their home country to find safety elsewhere. Causes of conflict and individual situations vary from place to place, but regardless of the specifics in consequence of these changes, many refugees lose the sense of their identity. This paper will detail the hardships refugees face when integrating into a new culture. Before they leave for a new country, refugees experience trauma, which could be anything from wars, injury, sexual abuse, physical abuse, or political conflict. As they arrive in a new country and are relocated in a city, refugees continue to confront complex challenges such as cultural adaptation, affordable housing, mental health difficulties, integrating into the education system, finding employment, helping their family adapt, and learning independence in an unfamiliar place, all in relation to UN SDG 16, “Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions,” and SDG 4 “Quality Education.” This paper explores ideas concerning refugees adapting to a new country, issues of economic class, and ways to help children continue their education. This paper contains information from peer-reviewed articles, and other scholarly references.

Key Words: Refugees, coping strategies, resettlement, cultural adaptation, family, women and children

 

Buddhodev Ghosh
Akanksha Prajapati
Indian Institute of Technology
India

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

  Why Does the Indian Perspective Matter? A Search for the Indian Views on the Concept of Ecological Harmony and Sustainable Development

The concepts such as sustainable development and conservation that contemporary environmentalists propose and are forced to adhere to may have been inspired by what has already been said in the ancient scriptures. We need to understand the deep and comprehensible meanings of cultural and scriptural practices; to re-evaluate sustainable attitudes towards the environment. Eco-Dharma is a new term for explaining ethical ways which contribute to the consciousness of the environment.  This paper will be divided into three sections; first, this paper will try to describe how eco-friendly nature is present in Indian tradition and what people are practicing. The second section will look into some environmental spirit present in dharma, and the third section will be about how these ideas can be imposed for sustainable and harmonic development.

Keywords: Environment, Sustainable development, Dharma, Indian tradition, Indic ideas

 

Zoë Gorman
Princeton University

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

 

Contested Spaces in Mali: Justice, Security, and the State
While recent studies find positive effects of violent conflict on judicial systems and trust in the state, this paper provides subnational evidence for the opposite trend in the context of Mali’s current conflict. I argue the loss of territorial control to rebel groups leads to a sense of abandonment among populations by the state and a turn towards parallel mechanisms for judicial service provision, which become further entrenched within local society and neo-patrimonial power hierarchies. Meanwhile, efforts to improve the judiciary at the national level through initiatives, platforms and laws do not percolate to conflict-affected periphery regions in a way that meaningfully repairs their trust. The analysis leverages a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) developed by Anders (2020) to map territorial control across Mali from 2011-2019. Quantitative analysis based on the HMM mapping and Afrobarometer survey data finds a clear and robust correlation between levels of territorial occupation by rebel groups and deteriorating trust in the state judiciary, the rule of law, judicial fairness and anti-corruption 

Keywords: Mali, Sahel, intrastate conflict, justice, territorial control, peacebuilding

 

Talatou Maiga
Utah Valley University

Chitranjali Negi
Supreme Court of India
India

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    Confronting Violence Within and Between Communities: A Case for the Creation and Strengthening of More Peace and Justice Mechanisms in India and Mali

Violence is defined as “the use of physical force, usually with the purpose of injuring or damaging [a] target.” (Bartos & Wehr, 2002; Beer & Packard, 2012; Holbrook & Cook, 2013; Holbrook, 2015; Danziger & Lupo, 2020 ). Many analysts have broadened the definition of violence, not only by using it interchangeably with the word “conflict”, but also by including in its definition the threats of physical force whether made in person or online, as long as those threats are likely to cause injury or damage to the target. In countries like India and Mali, violence is seen through a wide range of forms. In this study, authors look at the two countries of India and Mali and attempt to answer the following questions:

1-Why is it that despite an increasing number of democracies, legal experts, and mediators, violence/conflict continues to rise in countries like India and Mali?
2-What is missing in the laws and processes that address conflict/violence in the countries under investigation?
3-What kinds of mechanisms might be needed in those two countries in order to empower their institutions and position them to better confront conflict/violence in all their forms?

This work is done with an eye toward the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal 16 (SDG 16) which is Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions which means an emphasis is put on why it matters if these two countries get new paradigms or strong institutions for conflict resolutions. 

Key words: Gender violence, mediation, law, conflict resolutions, rebellion, violence against women, public outreach forums

 

Jacques Moli

Cameroon

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

Remobiliser les Traditions Ancestrales Dans la Construction D’une Paix Durable en Afrique: un Enjeu de Développement Durable
S’il y a une évidence sur laquelle les chercheurs peuvent facilement s’accorder, c’est qu’il n’y a pas de développement véritable d’une société sans la  paix. Aussi, en constatant que « le développement est le nouveau nom de la paix, il convient de réfléchir sur les conditions qui garantissent cette paix. Notre présentation examine le rôle que les alliances à plaisanterie peuvent jouer dans la prévention et la résolution des conflits en Afrique. La tradition des alliances à plaisanterie entre membres de différentes communautés ethniques bien connue sur le continent, apparait comme un levier mobilisable pour la quête de la paix. Les alliances à plaisanterie promeuvent en effet les relations de bon voisinage, d’entraide et de soutien réciproque entre les communautés. Nous soutenons que cette tradition séculaire, toujours vivante dans l’esprit de nombreux Africains, surtout ceux du monde rural, pourrait faire l’objet d’une remobilisation par les décideurs politiques contemporains pour faciliter la paix entre les communautés locales. Comment pourrait-on y parvenir ? Tel est l’objet de notre présentation.

Keywords: Paix, traditions, développement, alliances à plaisanteries

 

Obasesam Okoi
University of St. Thomas

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

    Entrepreneurship and Peace in Nigeria’s Oil Region: Why Sustainable Development Matter

Entrepreneurship is a central pillar of Nigeria’s peacebuilding program, which has contributed to the reduction of insurgent activities in the oil region while helping former insurgents to reintegrate into civilian society. However, entrepreneurship programs that are designed to facilitate peacebuilding are implemented in communities that continue to suffer the effects of decades of an oil industry that has polluted their lands, air, and waters, thereby reinforcing the importance of sustainable development as a critical component of peacebuilding. This article asks, can entrepreneurship contribute to sustainable peace in Nigeria’s oil region without progress towards sustainable development? How can sustainable development receive greater priority and attention in the Niger Delta peace process? The study utilized a sequential mixed method design to collect and analyze qualitative and quantitative data in two phases. In the quantitative phase, I administered a standardized questionnaire to ex-insurgents in three states: Akwa Ibom, Rivers, and Bayelsa. The result provided a statistical description of the respondents’ opinions concerning the role that entrepreneurship plays in the peace process to generate themes for qualitative interviews with purposefully selected participants. The empirical evidence shows that the peacebuilding program has increased the number of small-scale entrepreneurs throughout the oil region. While this peacebuilding strategy is instrumental to the unwillingness of many ex-insurgents to return to criminal behavior, environmental degradation continues to exacerbate already present pathologies in the oil region. This raises critical concerns about the sustainability of the peacebuilding program and the importance of sustainable development as the pathway to lasting peace.  

Keywords: Entrepreneurship; peacebuilding; sustainable development; peace; insurgency; Niger Delta

 

Nandini Praveen
Government Law College
India

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

Gender Based Violence in Armed Conflict and Displacement and Sustainable Development Goals: A Case Study in International Law
Gender-based violence (GBV) is a continuing reality that takes place during situations of armed conflict and displacements with no regard for human rights or the trauma (physical and mental) that victims have to go through. The vulnerability of victims and the strategic approach of inflicting violence on them is the exploitation of the human body. Most GBVs are gone underreported or considered insignificant by domestic laws which shower injustice on victims who have to suffer the prolonged effects of the event. GBV is an obstruction in the face of achieving gender equality and empowerment of all girls and women, which is one of the most important objectives of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This paper focuses on the SDG 16 and the SDG 5 with the chosen topic.
The paper uses a doctrinal research method in conjunction with qualitative legal research analysis in the preparation of the research paper. The paper looks at the social, cultural, and political factors that mold the contextual elements in the said narrative. The paper concentrates on the current legal regime in international law and investigates the research hypothesis for future development.

KEYWORDS: Gender-Based Violence, Sustainable Development Goals, Armed Conflict, Displacement, International Law

 

Lia Baez Vidal
Westminister College

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

Genocides of Coloniality: Power, Race and Genocide as a Foundational Practice in Colonial America
Genocide as a phenomenon has been widely studied, defined and policed, especially in the fields of political and justice studies. The general academic and legal consensus is that genocide is the attempted or successful annihilation of a people, based on a variety of factors and motivations - including race, ethnicity, religion and national origin. However, the existing literature fails to include the issue of colonialism in the discourse and genealogy of genocide. This article examines the issue of how and why genocides of conquest and coloniality are omitted from the record on genocide by analyzing and critiquing the current discourse, which will enable not only a broadening of the term but also a deconstruction of power as it pertains to what genocide is and its effects as an act of worldbuilding. In order to do this, the author will critically analyze the role that racism played in genocides of conquest - specifically those that took place in the Americas, using a decolonial, power/knowledge and critical race theory lens. Initially, the author hypothesized that understanding this morphing of power would make it possible to find a way to break the cycle of oppression that allows for these atrocities to be committed again and again. In reality, genocide gave power through colonial suffering and no morphing of this power was necessary because genocide gave power by fear, creating docile bodies out of the colonized and establishing the foundation of a new, hegemonic world order - what we now see as normal. The author recommends a revolution in genocidal discourse as an alternative that would allow a dismantling of colonial systems and cycles of oppression.

Key Words: genocide, colonialism, decolonial, race, discourse, power

 

       

SDG 17: Partnership for the goals

Presenters   Title and Absract

Eta Mercy Aki
Sophie Ekume Etomes
Linda Melem
University of Buea
Cameroon

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

   

Enhancing Quality Education through Partnerships: Why It Matters in Higher Education in Cameroon
Higher education is tasked with developing quality workers and increasing the quality of life of its recipients. Achieving these goals requires high-quality education. Quality education allows people to break the cycle of poverty and improves their well-being. It enables the attainment of other Sustainable Development Goals. Yet, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Cameroon do not seem to provide adequate opportunities for sustainable development in light of the challenges of high enrolment, inadequate infrastructure and unemployment. One way to minimize these challenges is through partnerships. HEIs have been involved in many partnerships yet the benefits are not significant which may be a consequence of the procedure for establishing the partnerships. The study investigates the gaps in the procedures for engaging in partnerships to develop a model for partnerships in HEIs in Cameroon. A concurrent mixed method design was employed. The sample included 68 participants (25 personnel in HEIs and 43 personnel in partner institutions). The purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used. Documentary analysis, an interview guide and questionnaires were used to collect data. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS version 25.0 for frequency counts and percentages while the qualitative data was analysed thematically. Based on the challenges of partnerships identified, a model was developed to guide partnerships in HEIs in Cameroon.

Keywords: Quality education, Partnerships, Higher education, SDGs, Cameroon

 

Simo Krsmanovic

Canada

 

Published Paper

PRERECORDED

 

The Impact of Decentralisation on Creating Enabling Environments: Whole-of-Society Implementation of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
Does the degree of decentralisation in a state impact its implementation of the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (2030 Agenda)? The 2030 Agenda calls for a commitment from states to pursue the creation of an enabling environment for sustainable development at all levels and by all actors (United Nations 2015, para 63). To achieve this, there are requirements for coordination and complimentary actions between governments, civil society and businesses to ensure involvement across a wide range of sectors and communities. This study aims to analyse how decentralised governance structures affect the ways states create enabling environments to support cooperative implementation of the 2030 Agenda. To date, little research analyses how levels of decentralisation and systems of governance influence implementation of the 2030 Agenda and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This study is to contribute towards this analysis through a multiple case study of three federations (Canada, Switzerland, and Germany) and their federal sustainable development implementation strategies. It finds that these decentralised states use common frameworks and multi-level governance arrangements to manage jurisdictional barriers and competing priorities between their levels of government. Canada, Switzerland, and Germany all demonstrate common challenges in supporting cooperative implementation of the 2030 Agenda among their state and non-state actors due to complex administrative processes and competing priorities, making it difficult to coordinate the mutual dependency between their levels of government and align strategic planning across jurisdictions. They address these challenges in a number of similar and unique ways.

Key words: Sustainable Development Goals; Governance; Decentralization; Multi-level Governance; Regional Development; Subnational Governments

 

Horace Manga Ngomo
University of Buea
Cameroon

 

In-Person Presentation
Published Paper

  An Assessment of the University of Buea as a hub of Excellence and a Center of Partnership for the SDGs
In this paper, we assess the University of Buea as a hub of excellence for SDG 17, “Partnership for the Goals” through an analysis of the research work at the University in the past two decades to demonstrate the strong, historical engagement with the SDGs. Analysis revealed that 13 of the 53 partnership projects signed by the University within the last decade, impacted 16 SDG’s. Secondly, a survey was carried out to evaluate the engagement of Establishments’ research projects on the SDGs and to highlight how partnerships have been critical to their successful implementation. Results showed the Establishments’ interests and priorities—their priority SDGs; partnerships with the most impact; structures for long-term partnerships; SDGs for partnerships at the local/national, continental, and global levels. The results showed that research projects in the Establishments impacted all 16 SDGs, and their interconnectedness was evident. Thirdly, we analyzed the themes of the abstracts submitted to this UN Conference and determined that they covered 14 out of the 17 SDGs. With one of the usual challenges of SDGs being impacts assessment and interconnectedness, the success of this approach resides in its possible application as an alternative framework for SDG impact assessment as well as its affirmation of the necessity of the multi stakeholder approach for economic development. Furthermore, given the interconnectedness of the SDGs, their ranking by impacts and other criteria, allows us to establish the resources that underpin their implementation in order to strengthen or shift these resources to enhance the SDGs outcomes.
 
Keywords: partnership; epicenter; interconnection; impact assessment